Bonding

  • Created by: JC:8-9-9
  • Created on: 23-12-18 09:42
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  • Bonding
    • Ionic
      • Definition
        • Electrostatic Force of attraction between oppositely charged ions  by electron transfer.
      • Metal atoms lose electrons = +ve ions Non-Metal atoms gain electrons to form -ve ions
      • Characteristics
        • Stronger & melting points higher- ions smaller/ higher charges.
          • e.g. MgO - higher melting point than NaCl - has ions ( Mg 2+ & O 2- - smaller and higher charges than Na + & Cl-)
    • Covalent
      • Definition
        • Shared pair of electrons
      • Dative Covalent
        • Forms
          • Shared pair of electrons in covalent bond from 1 of bonding atoms. - also called Co-ordinate.
        • E.g. NH4+, H3O, NH3BF3
        • Shape in NH4+ - tetrahedral
        • Direction of arrow from atom providing lone pair to atom deficient
    • Metallic
      • Definition
        • Electrostatic force of attraction between positive metal ions & delocalised electrons.
      • 3 factors affect strength of bond
        • 1. No of Protons/ nuclear attraction - more - stronger
        • 2. No. of delocalised electrons per atom (outer electrons) - more- stronger
        • 3. Size of ion - smaller- stronger
      • Example
        • Mg stronger metallic bonding than Na - higher melting point.
          • Mg- more electrons in outer shell released to delocalised electrons.
            • Mg ion - smaller & 1 more proton - stronger electrostatic attraction  & higher energy needed to break bonds

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