Bonding

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  • Bonding
    • Ionic
      • the strong electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
      • evidence for the existence of ions
        • migration of ions
          • ionic compounds conduct electricity when molten or in solution
        • physical properties of ionic compounds
          • brittle
            • dislocation causes layers to slide over each other, splitting the crystal
          • high melting temperature
            • strong forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions
          • soluble in water
            • polar water molecules form a hydration shell around ions
      • factors affecting the strength of ionic bonds
        • greater charge
          • stronger ionic bond
        • smaller ionic radius
          • stronger ionic bond
    • Covalent
      • the strong electrostatic attraction between two nuclei and the shared pair of electrons between them
      • factors affecting strength
        • Dative covalent
          • both electrons in the shared pair are provided by one atom
          • shown by an arrow from the atom with the lone pair to the atom with the empty orbital
        • nuclei joined by multiple bonds have a greater electron density
          • stronger covalent bond
        • smaller atomic radii
          • stronger covalent bond
    • Metallic
      • the strong electrostatic attraction between metal ions and delocalised elctrons
      • factors affecting the strength of metallic bonds
        • greater number of protons
          • stronger metallic bond
        • greater number of delocalised electrons
          • stronger metallic bond
        • smaller ion
      • Dative covalent
        • both electrons in the shared pair are provided by one atom
        • shown by an arrow from the atom with the lone pair to the atom with the empty orbital

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