Bolshevik take over and consolidation 1917-24

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  • Bolshevik take over and consolidation 1917-24
    • The provisional government
      • Capable and in control
        • The leading Bolsheviks including Lenin fled following the July Days
        • Made reforms
          • Freedom of religion and speech
          • Secret police abolished
          • Amnesty for political prisoners
          • Promise of an elected parliament
          • Recognition of trade unions
          • Introduction of an 8 hour day for industrial workers
        • Bolsheviks denounced as traitors by new prime minister Kerensky
        • June 1917 got a vote of confidence from Russian citizens
      • Problems faced
        • Bolsheviks were armed to help put down the Kornilov revolt
        • Decided to continue in the war (suffered further defeats)
        • The formation of the Soviet Workers and Soldier Deputies
        • Inherited the tsar's problems
        • Lenin began campaigning to gain peasant support " land to the peasants
          • "peace, land and bread"
          • Attracted more soliders
    • Effects of WW1
      • Large military defeats (26th-29th tannenberg lake + 5-9th september massurian lakes
      • Severe food shortages
      • Russian's forced to retreat
      • Government- Tsarina ans rasputin
    • October revolution-October 1917
      • Lenin returned to petrograd
      • There are rumours to begin with but PG ignore
      • Bolsheviks control the red guard the petrograd Garrison, Baltic navy
      • 24th October Bolsheviks overthrew PG
    • Bolshevik success
      • Weaknesses of the PG
        • Non elected body
        • Had to share power with the soviets
        • Temporary government
        • Never removed of Bolsheviks
        • Couldn't over run soviet order #1
      • Control of the armed forces
        • Soldiers of Petrograd sided with the Bolsheviks
        • The creation of the MRC enabled the Bolsheviks to control them at a critical time
      • Lack of alternatives
        • Many political parties did not offer their leadership
        • Anarchy ensued with peasants seizing land throughout 1917
      • Role of lenin
        • Persuaded Bolsheviks to oppose war
        • Had evolved the teachings of marx
        • Simple slogans- easy to understand
        • Created the red guard using German money
    • Problems facing the Bolsheviks
      • Alcoholism (looting of vintage wines)
      • Bolsheviks only won 1/4 of the vote
        • So dismissed parliament
      • Counter revolutionary groups
        • Creates Cheka (secret police)
      • Protesting- soldiers+ kronstadt sailors
        • Red army- fight back
      • We spread hunger
      • Too much land
        • Split it between peasants
      • Russia was still at war
        • Lenin intended to make peace (treaty of Brest-litovsk)
    • Bolsheviks ending the war with Germany
      • It was a promise they had made (cause rebellion if not)
      • Russia was materially exhausted
      • Food and fuel shortages
    • Treaty of Brest Litovsk
      • Lost popularity
      • Lost  32% of arable land
      • Lost 54% of its industry
      • Lost 89% of its coal mines
      • Lost 74% of iron and coal
      • Lost 300 million gold roubles
      • Lost 34% of the population
      • Lost workers
    • Red vs whites civil war
      • Whites
        • Cruel commanders
        • Scared of communism
        • Wanted tsarist regimes back
        • Had a lot of support
        • Strength + supplies from Britain, USA+ france
        • Opperated as seperate groups
        • Spread over large areas
        • Low morale of soldiers
        • Foreign countries didn't have much influences
      • Reds
        • Trotsky was a brilliant organiser
        • Used a train
        • Wanted to keep power
        • Wanted to secure the revolution
        • Propaganda (led by lenin)
        • Kept soldiers happy
        • Large army (conscription)
        • Peasants scared of tsarist regime returning
        • Used the Cheka to scare people
        • People were against trotskys methods

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