The Cardiovascular System

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  • Blood Vessels
    • Arteries
      • Carry blood away from the heart
    • Capillaries
      • Where gaseous exchange takes place - O2 given, CO2 removed, neutrients given to muscles and vital organs
    • The Cardiovascular System
      • Blood
        • Blood Pressure
          • Long term = decreases
          • Short term = increases
          • The force exerted by blood on the walls of the blood vessels
            • Contracting phase = systolic pressure
            • Relaxing phase = diastolic pressure
          • Sphygmomanometer
            • The machine that measures your blood pressure
          • Average = 120 mm Hg  80 mm Hg
            • Hypertension (high) = 180               120
            • Hypotension (low) = 90              40
      • The Heart
        • Heart Rate
          • The amount of times your heart beats in a minute (bpm)
          • Average = 72 bpm
        • Cardiac Output
          • The amount of blood ejected from the heart in one minute
          • Stroke volume x heart rate
        • Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)
          • Causes
            • Hereditary conditions, infections, narrowing of coronary arteries, high blood pressure, smoking
              • But mainly: build up of fats and cholesterol on walls of arteries, causing an increase in bp
          • Signs and symptoms
            • Short of breath; especially after exercise
            • chest pains
      • Long Term (regular) Effects
        • Reduces blood pressure (stronger, stretchier, more flexible blood vessels)
        • Increased stroke volume
        • Cardiovascular hypertrophy
        • Increased cardiovascular strength
        • Increased cardiac output
        • Lower resting heart rate
        • Faster recovery rate
        • Healthy veins and arteries
      • Short Term (immediate) Effects
        • Increased heart rate
        • Increased blood pressure
      • Diet and Hight Cholesterol
        • Cholesterol
          • A fatty substance carried in blood by lipoproteins
        • High density lipoproteins (HDL)
          • Contains more protein than fat
          • Carries cholesterol away from the arteries t the live which removes it from the body
          • Fruit and veg are rich in HDLs
        • Low density lipoproteins (LDL)
          • Mostly fat
          • Build up of plaque can restrict blood flow in the arteries
          • Blockages in vessels means heart has to work harder to pump resulting in high bp
    • Veins
      • Carry blood to the heart


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