GCSE - History - Surgery - Blood loss

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  • BLOOD LOSS
    • stopping blood flow
      • Clamps
        • before amputations, clamps stopped the blood flow
          • this only stopped some of the blood loss
      • heat - cauterising
        • using a hot iron or oil poured on the wound seals the blood vessels.
          • this was very painful
      • tying blood vessels
        • ligatures tie up blood vessels
          • Didn't always work but was less painful than cauterisation
    • Blood transfusions
      • in the 17th century, doctors did transfusions from animals as well as humans
        • people rarely survived so it was banned
      • by late 19th century, blood transfusions were needed due to more surgery
      • in 1901-02, karl landsteiner discovered four blood groups
        • tranfusions between matching groups was possible, although testing blood groups took to long
      • in 1916 francis rous and james turner  added citrate glucose to the blood
        • this meant it could be stored for a lot longer
      • in 1915 lewisohn found that adding sodium citrate stopped the blood from clotting so it could be stored
        • richard weil used refrigerators to store it for longer
      • before the battle of cambrai in 1912, the army asked for blood donations
        • these were stored in the first ever blood bank
  • in 1915 lewisohn found that adding sodium citrate stopped the blood from clotting so it could be stored
    • richard weil used refrigerators to store it for longer

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