Blood Glucose Homeostasis 

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  • Blood Glucose Homeostasis
    • Diabetes Mellitus
      • Type 2 - Non insulin - dependant
        • Insulin is produced but the receptors on the cells stop functioning so insulin become ineffective.
        • Treated by a careful diet
      • Type 1 - Insulin- dependant
        • Severe lack of insulin due to the killing of B cells, often from a virus
        • Occurs in young children
        • Used to be a fatal disease until insulin was discovered
        • Treated by injections of insulin
        • Insulin can be extracted from the pancreas of pigs & cattle or genetically engineered
        • Treatments are always improving - possibility of islet transplants.
      • High glucose levels after eating, so kidneys can't re-absorb it all into the blood and it is excreted.
      • Symptoms
        • Dehydration - osmosis of water from cells to blood, which has a lower water potential.
          • Copious amounts of urine due to extra water in the blood
        • Poor vision - osmotic loss of water from eye lens
        • Tiredness due to glucose lost through urine and poor glucose uptake so low glycogen stores
        • Muscle wasting due to Gluconeogenesis
  • Type 1 - Insulin- dependant
    • Severe lack of insulin due to the killing of B cells, often from a virus
    • Occurs in young children
    • Used to be a fatal disease until insulin was discovered
    • Treated by injections of insulin
    • Insulin can be extracted from the pancreas of pigs & cattle or genetically engineered
    • Treatments are always improving - possibility of islet transplants.

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