Blood and The Circulatory System!

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  • Blood and The Circulatory System!
    • Blood transports various substances around the body through the circulatory system.
      • Oxygen
      • Glucose
      • Carbon Dioxide
      • It is made up of different things
        • Red blood cells
          • They transport oxygen from the lungs to everywhere else.
            • No nucleus so they can be filled with haemoglobin (a substance that binds with oxygen)
            • Bioconcave shape to give them a large surface area.
        • Plasma
          • A liquid that carries different substances
            • Nutrients
              • Glucose
              • Amino acids
            • Antibodies
            • Hormones
            • Waste
              • CO2
              • Urea
        • White blood cells
          • These help to fight infections by protecting the body against attacks from micro-organisms
        • Platelets
          • Small fragments of cells that helps clot wounds.
    • Humans have a double circulatory system
      • One pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs to take in oxygen.
      • The second pumps the oxygenated blood around the body.
        • The blood gives up its oxygen at the body cells and the deoxygenated blood returns to the heart to be pumped to the lungs.
      • This is a diagram of the heart.
        • The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body through the Vena Cava
          • Then the deoxygenated blood moves through into the right ventricle which pumps it into the lungs through the pulmonary artery.
        • The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs from the pulmonary vein.
          • The oxygenated blood moves into the left ventricle and is then pumped round the whole body through the aorta.
        • The valves in the heart prevent the back flow of the blood.
          • Veins also have valves for this reason.
        • There are two coronary arteries which supply the heart muscle cells with blood.
        • The left ventricle wall is thicker than the right as it has to pump the blood all the way round the body
    • There are three major types of blood vessel.
      • Veins
        • They carry the blood back to the heart.
        • The blood is carried at a lower pressure.
        • They have a larger lumen (hole) than arteries to help the blood flow more easily.
        • They have valves to keep the blood flowing in the right direction.
      • Arteries
        • These carry blood away from the heart to body cells.
        • The blood comes out of the heart at high pressure so the artery walls have to be strong and elastic and a lot thicker than vein walls.
      • Capilleries
        • Branches of arteries that are really really tiny. (One cell thick.)
          • One cell thick wall increases the rate of diffusion by decreasing the distance over which it happens.
        • They carry the blood really close to every cell to exchange substances with them.
        • They have permeable walls so substances can diffuse in and out.
        • They supply oxygen and glucose and take away waste like carbon dioxide.

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