Black & Tan Fantasy - Duke Ellington

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  • Black & Tan Fantasy - Duke Ellington & Bubber Miley
    • STRUCTURE
      • Ends with coda (Bb min)
      • Tutti, Sax solo, Trumpet solo, piano solo, trombone solo, trumpet solo, tutti.
      • 'Head' arrangement: harmonised theme provides chord sequence for following melodic improvs
      • Head: 12 bar blues, played 6x total, 1st & 2d separated by an independent 16 bar section
        • 6th & final chorus is incomplete, interrupted by preparation for ending
    • TEXTURE
      • Sustained chordal accompaniment, low in register, from sax in interlude (13-28)
      • Opening & closing sections: trumpet & trombone playing mainly parallel 6th
      • Piano texture in chorus 4 - stride style of accompaniment
      • Chrouses 1,2,5&6: simple MDH
    • TONALITY
      • B.13-coda at 87: parallel maj key of Bb maj
      • Begins & ends in Bb minor
    • RESOURCES
      • 'Jungle Style' - heavy drums, low sax textures, growling sound of plunger-muted trumpet
      • Reeds (sax & clarinet), Brass (trumpets & tombone), Rhythm section (piano, banjo, drums and [double] bass)
      • Trumpet & trombone pitch bends (b.3+7)
      • Wide vibrato & use of portamento: sax solo (b.13-28)
      • Piano solo: stride style (b.53-64)
      • Horse whinny in trombone solo & muted growl in trumpet
    • METRE
      • 4/4 - steady swing temp
    • RHYTHM
      • Opening underlined by constant accented chords that accompany the head
      • Sax interlude: triplets & syncopated, swung quavers
      • Trumpet solo; more complex rhythms: triplet crotchets & long upbeat dotted crotchets
      • Piano solo: more crotchet movement in bass & quaver, semiquaver movement in treble, swung rhythm & some syncopation
      • Anacrusis at start of piano solo
    • HARMONY
      • Changes of the head are diatonic & functional (blues elements e.g. Dflats & pitch bends)
      • Mainly based around 12 bar blues sequence
      • More advanced chromatic harmony as piece progresses
      • 7th chords, secondary dominant & substitution chords
      • Cycle of 5ths (19-20 & 84)
      • Parallel harmonic movement (27-28)
      • German augmented 6th (13 & 21)
      • Piano solo: substitution chords
      • Coda contains plagal cadences (unusual for jazz)
    • MELODY
      • Chromaticism (25-26)
      • Trumpet solo: bluesy notes clash with diatonic Bb maj harmony of 12 bar sequence - covers large 2x8ve range
      • Sax interlude uses rare whole-tone scale (13-14) before conjunct & broken chordal accompaniment
      • Head melody based on chorus of 'The Holy City' but rhythm is augmented & tonality from maj to min
      • More dissonant clashes of diminished 5ths (eg F nat at 41)
      • Piano solo: mostly diatonic, some chromatic passing notes to mimic effect of blues notes
      • Repeated ideas (56) & turn figure dominates (61)
      • Trombone solo: high in range & smaller tessitura (10th). Uses blue 3rds (74) & horse whinny
      • Coda quotes Chopin's funeral march

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