Black American Civil Rights

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  • Black American Civil Rights
    • Why Fight for Civil Rights?
      • After WW1, Black Americans began to campaign for equality.
        • They faced segregation, discrimination and violence - all of which where more extreme in the south, but still existed in the north.
        • They faced a vicious cycle - poor jobs led to poor wages, meaning poor lifestyles.
        • In 1913, president Wilson introduced segregation in government offices. There was also an increase in violence - the Red Summer Riots.
    • Jim Crow Laws
      • After slavery was abolished, Southerners felt a lack of control over black Americans, so introduced the J.C.L
        • They involved things such as - where to sit on a bus, where to live and where to go to school
        • The law introduced separate living spaces for Black Americans, with seperate facilities like water fountains and toilets
        • In order to vote, there were a number of literacy tests that had to be taken. It was commonplace that black Americans had harder tests.
          • You also had to own a home to think about voting. Those who passed the criteria were often met by mobs of white people.
    • The Great Migration
      • Between 1917 and 1932 there was a wave of black migration from south to North. It was mainly due to pull factors up north, and the push of the J.C.L
        • During WW1, there was an increase in factory jobs. They offered housing, transport and a good wage.
        • In the north ; population in cities rose and black people gained political. People began to realise that it may be the difference between losing and staying in power.
        • In the south ; work forces shrank but people saw it to be a result of the J.C.L which is what they wanted.
    • Legal change to direct action
      • Black Americans used a variet of tactics to fight for civil rights. They used peaceful protesting and boycotting to draw public attention to discrimination
        • Many groups (like the NAACP) were set up in the twentieth century to help the fight for freedom
        • The number of civil rights groups took a leap after both world wars. The NAACP went from 9,000 in 1917 to 90,000 in 1919 and then 600,000 in 1946
        • Separatists ; they were people who argued black people would never get their equality, and that they should stop fighting and embrace segregation.
    • The role of the NAACP
      • They were set up with the aim to gain black american legal rights, beginning by informing people on the harms of lynching etc.. They also took many cases of unfair segregation to court.
        • Plessy and Ferguson ; said segregation was allowed so long as it emphasised that it was 'seperate but equal' ; yet the NAACP did not think this was the case.
        • Brown vs The board of education ; argued for the desegregation of schools, which in some places was integrated within a year, with other schools not encouraging it.
      • National assocaition for the advancements of coloured people
    • Impact of the New Deal
      • Duirng the 1930's, black voters shifted from Republlicans (who abolished slavery) to Democrats (who promised the New Deal)
        • The agencies in the ND were said to be 'colourblind', however many African Americans were often removed from the projects in place of white people. The bigges example was farming, where workers were sacked for white people.
        • Black officials in the government would often protest and advise; and they often got the results they wanted. The N.R.A were persuaded to set a minimum wage for black and white people at the same rate.
    • Protests against the new deal
      • Black people would often protest against how they were treated during the ND, and found themselves having the support of communist and left winggroups
        • In 1931 the NAACP turned down a case of nine young men who were being held on a **** trial; the case was then picked up and won by communist lawyers.

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