BIS - T6 - ORGANISATIONS, MOVEMENTS, MEMBERS

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  • BIS - T6 - ORGANISATIONS, MOVEMENTS AND MEMBERS
    • Types of religious organisation
      • Troeltsch: Church and sect
        • church: large organisation. Professional priest hierarchy. Aim to include whole of society + few demands
        • sect: hostile to wider society + high demand on members. One charismatc leader + appeal to poor
      • Denomination and cult
        • Wallis: similarities and differences
          • church and sect: see selves as only valid interpretation of truth. Denoms + cults = accepting
          • churches and denoms: seen as respected by society. Sects + cults = deviant
        • Denom: inbetween church and sect - do not claim monopoly of truth - place little demand on members. Accept society values but not linked to state
        • Cult: highly individualistic - led by practitioners of 'special knowledge'. Not demanding - followers = members
      • Wallis: New Religious Movements
        • World-affirming NRM's
          • CULTS. most popular. Lack trad. religious elements - e.g. worship. But offer supernatural reward
            • members = customers - entry through training. Not restricting to every day life
        • World- rejecting NRM's
          • similar to SECT. clear notion of God - one sacred truth.
            • seek radical societal change - members excluded from out side world - brainwashed
        • World - accomodating NRM's
          • breakways from CHURCHES and DENOMS. seek to restore spiritual religion purity
            • neither accept nor reject world - focus on religion rather than world.
        • explosion in new organisations - Wallis classifies based on relationship with external society
        • eval: ignores diversity of beliefs within the NRM's
          • some may have aspects of all types - can't classify
      • S + B: Sects and cults
        • Sects - form from disagreement with trad. Church,
          • promise other-worldy benefits to economically deprived
        • Cults: New forms of religion - usually imported.
          • promise this-worldy benefits to prosperous individuals
        • subdivides cults based on organisation:
          • [audience cults] - little commitment - done through media
          • [client cults] - provide services of self improvement - bring therapy
          • [cultic movements] - high commitment - no other loyalties
    • Explaining the growth of religious movements
      • Weber: Marginality
        • sects arise in poor society - offer solution for disprivileged in society. - religious justification of suffering
      • Wallis: Relative deprivation
        • = subjective sense of feeling deprived. Even priviliged can FEEL this. M/C feel lack of spirituality - turn to sect for community.
          • W/C turn to world-rejecting sects to give them rewards they're denied
          • M/C tun to world-accepting in order to further progress in Earthly success
      • Wilson: Social change
        • undermined norms in society ring sense of anomie
          • sects promise security.
            • Bruce: secularisation makes people prefer less demanding sect over church
      • Dynamics of sects and cults
        • churches = stretched over history. Sects = short-lived
        • Denomination or death
          • sects result from [schism] - disagreement with trad. religious views. Either comply or die out:
            • 2nd generation: lack commitment of parent's - no choice to be in sect = reject it
            • Death of leader: replaced by formal bureaucratic leader = turns into denom
        • S + B: Sectarian cycle
          • 1. tension of privileged and deprived church members
            • 2. deprived form sect - tension with society over beliefs
              • 3. coolness of 2nd gen = sect disappears
                • 4. more world-accepting sect values.
                  • 5. original members aim to protect original values
      • Heelas: The growth of New Age
        • New Age beliefs offer both outside world success and inner enlightenment. Rise from 80's - belief in Aliens, Tarot, etc.
          • common themes of New Age: [self spirituality] - away from trad. churches and look inside selves
            • [detraditionalisation] reject authority of priests - value inner selves power.
      • Drane: Post modernity and New Age
        • appeal of New Age comes from lack of interest in meta-narratives - no singular truth of society
          • science promises great improvement but brings war - people do not trust great claims of faith
        • Bruce: New Age and modernity
          • consumerist society = people value self gain = New Age gives 'watered down' version of trad. demanding religion.
    • Religiosity and social groups
      • Gender
        • More women attend church than men. Women deem selves 'spiritual'. Men more likely to be agnostic.
        • Reasons for differences:
          • Risk, socialisation and roles
            • women = caring and obedient. Men take risks.- will not be religious Davie - close link to birth and death leads to women's religiosity.
          • Paid work
            • Bruce: less paid working women = religion turns to women's domestic sphere
            • secularisation drives religion out of men's work place. - family sphere
          • Woodhead: Women and new age:
            • New Age appreciate 'nature' and 'healing'. - women feel valued. Also feel valued as New Age movements value no conformity to gender roles.
          • Brusco: Pentecostal gender paradox
            • Pentacostalism = patriarchal.  Values women cared for by men. Women use P.ism to improve position.
      • Ethnicity
        • UK diverse society. Ethnic min - higher than average participation. Decline comes from second gen.
        • Reasons for:
          • Cultural defence
            • way of coping with racial oppression of society. Growth of Ldn churches to accomodate immigration.
          • Cultural transition
            • religion eases transition into new community - for ethnic min.
              • high level of religion in 1st gen immigrants in UK
                • once groups make transition - religio loses importance
      • Age
        • older a person is more likely to attend church. Under 15's forced by parents. Young people (15-20) least likely to go
        • Reasons: [ageing affect] - when approaching death gain spiritual interest. [cohort effect] - events make people more/less religious - e.g. War [secularisation] increases with each generation.

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