Bipolar Depression

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  • Bipolar Depression
    • Features
      • Affects approx 1.2% of the popn.
      • Equally common in men and women.
      • Typically emerges between 18 and 24.
      • People with it have an increased risk of suicide.
      • Symptoms vary widely in pattern, severity and frequency.
      • Average of an 8 year delay before a diagnosis is made.
      • Found in all races, ethnic groups and social classes.
      • Women with it have more depressive and mixed episodes than men with it do.
      • Its the 6th leading cause of disability in the world.
    • Symptoms
      • Different types
        • Bipolar 1: at least one manic episode followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes.
        • Bipolar 2: at least one major depressive episode lasting at least 2 weeks and at least one hypomanic episode lasting at least 4 days but no manic episode.
        • Cyclothymic disorder: at least 2 years (1 in children&teens) of many periods of hypomania and depressive symptoms.
      • Manic/hypomanic symptoms
        • Grandiosity
          • unrealistic sense of superiority, inflated self esteem
        • less need for sleep
        • unusual talkativeness
        • persistent elevated mood/irritability
        • racing thoughts
        • distractability
        • increased goal-directed activity
        • doing high risk activities
      • Major depressive symptoms
        • persistent low mood, feeling sad, empty, hopeless, tearful
        • reduced interest in all activities
        • significant weight loss/gain or inc/dec in appetite.
        • insomnia/sleeping excessively.
        • restlessness/slowed behaviour
        • fatigue/loss of energy
        • inappropriate guilt
        • unable to concentrate/indecisiveness
        • thoughts of death/suicide
  • Others
    • psychosis: severe mania/depression that results in detachment from reality inc delusions and hallucinations
    • catatonia: not reacting to your environment, holding body in unusual ways, not speaking, mimicking another persons speech or movements
    • mixed features: criteria for (hypo)manic but having some symptoms for depression at the same time
      • includes agitation, trouble sleeping, change in appetite, psychosis, thoughts of suicide.


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