Biopsychology- The Structure & Functions of Neurons

  • Created by: odavid601
  • Created on: 10-06-19 04:20
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  • Neurons
    • Types & Functions
      • 100 billion nerve cells in our body
        • 80% are in the brain
      • Provide the nervous system with its primary means of communication by transmitting signals chemically & electrically
      • Motor neurons connect the CNS to effectors such as muscles and glands.
        • Have long axons & short dendrites
      • Sensory Neurons- carry messages from the PNS  —> CNS
        • Short axons and long dendrites
      • Relay Neurons connect sensory neurons to motor or other relay neurons
        • Short axons & short dendrites
    • Structure
      • Cell Body- includes the nucleus which contains the genetic material of the cell
      • Dendrites- carry nerve impulses from neighbouring neurons towards the cell body
      • Axon- carries electrical impulse away from the cell body down the length of the neuron
        • Myelin Sheath- fatty layer that protects the axon
        • Nodes of Ranvier- gaps in the axon that speed up the transmission of the impulse.
        • Terminal Buttons- end of axon communicate with the next neuron in the chain across the synapse
    • Electrical Transmissions
      • @ Resting state the inside of the cell is -vely charged compared to the outside
      • When neuron is activated it is +ly charged for a split second causing an action potential to occur
      • This create an electrical impulse that travels down the axon towards the end of the neuron


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