bio psychology structure and function of neurons

  • Created by: cieran32
  • Created on: 19-09-18 22:25
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  • structure and functions of neurons
    • three types of neurons
      • sensory neurons- carry signals from receptors to the spinal cord and brain
      • Relay neurons- carry messages from one part of the CNS to another
      • Motor neurons- carry signals from the CNS to effectors muscles or glands
    • synapse - the site where an axon terminates at a target cell
      • when the depolarised signal reaches the synapse it releases neurotransmitters
      • gap at the end of the axon and the target cell
    • These receptors are coupled with ion channel proteins. - controlled by receptor
    • neurotransmitters- signalling molecules used at the synapses to pass a signal from a neuron to its target cell
      • Receptors at the target cell which the neurotransmitter binds to
      • Neurotransmitters diffuse across from the axon to the target cell
    • when the neurotransmitter binds to the receptor the ion channels open. only specific type of ion is allowed in.
      • Excitory Neurons- if it is an excitory neuron (signalling neuron) the ion channel will allow sodium ions (na+) to enter the cell and depolarisation to occur
      • Inhibitory neurons - if the signalling neuron is inhibitory a different ion channel will open and allow negatively charged ions such as CI- to enter the cell. increase the polarisation and decrease the channel plarisation


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