Biopsychology

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  • Biopsychology
    • The nervous system
      • The central nervous system
        • Brain
        • Spinal cord
      • Peripheral nervous system
        • Somatic nervous system
        • Autonomic nervous system
          • Sympathetic nervous system
            • vital functions
          • Parasympathetic nervous system
            • Muscle movements
      • Fight or flight
    • The endocrine system
      • Glands and hormones
      • Fight or flight
    • Neurons
      • Sensory
      • Relay
      • Motor
      • Action potential
    • Synaptic transmission
      • synaptic vesicles
      • Presynaptic terminal
      • Synaptic cleft
      • Postsynaptic receptor site
      • Inhibition vs excitation
    • Localisation
      • Frontal lobe
        • Motor area
        • Brocas area
        • Wernickes area
      • Parietal lobe
        • Somatosensory are
      • Occipital lobe
        • Visual area
      • Temporal lobe
        • Auditory area
      • Evaluation
        • Brain scan evidence: Petersen reading and listening tasks
        • Neurosurgical evidence
        • Case study evidence (Phineas Gage)
        • Lashley's research
        • Plasticity
    • Plasticity
      • synaptic pruning in childhood
      • Maguire et al: London taxi drivers and the posterior hippocampus
      • Draganski: medical students
      • Functional recovery after trauma
        • Axonal sprouting
      • Evaluation
        • Practical application: neurorehabilitation
        • Negative plasticity: phantom limb syndrom
        • Age and plasticity: Bezzola et al: golf
        • Support from animal studies: kitten's eye
        • Cognitive reserve: education and the brain's ability to recover
    • Split-Brain Research and Hemispheric Lateralisation
      • Split brain studies: Sperry's epilepsy patients
        • Describe what you see
        • Recognition by touch
        • Composite words
        • Matching faces
      • Evaluation
        • Demonstrated lateralised brain functions (Verbal and analytical vs spatial and musical)
        • Methodological strengths
        • Theoretical basis: duality or interactionist?
        • Generalisation
    • Ways of Investigating the Brain.
      • Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
        • Blood flow and oxygen, 3D images
        • No radiation
        • Risk-free
        • Non-invasive
        • High spatial resolution
        • Expensive
        • Person must stay still
        • poor temporal resolution
        • Can only measure blood flow to indicate some form of activity
      • Electroencephalogram (EEG)
        • Electrical activity
        • diagnosis use
        • Sleep stages
        • High temporal resolution
        • Generalised nature
      • Event-related Potentials (ERPs)
        • Isolated EEG
        • Specific
        • High temporal resolution
        • Lack of standarisation
        • Background noise
      • Post-mortem Exams
        • Post-death
        • Vital in providing foundations
        • Generating hypotheses
        • Causation
        • Consent
    • Circadian Rhythems
      • lasts around 24 hours
      • Siffre's cave study
      • Aschoff and Wever: WWII bunker
      • Folkard et al: Clock cave study
      • Evaluation
        • Shift work
        • Drug treatments
        • Case studies and small samples
        • Poor control
        • Individual differences: larks and owls
    • Infradian and Ultradian Rhythms
      • Infradian
        • Longer than a day
        • Menstrual cycle: Stern and McClintock hormone study
        • Seasonal Affective  Disorder
      • Ultradian
        • Sleep cycle: 123425
      • Evaluation
        • Evolutionary basis for the menstrual cycle
        • Stern and McClintock limitations: confounding variables
        • REM sleep and dream recall
        • Animal studies: hormones
        • Practical application in SAD treatment
    • Endogenous Pacemakers and Exogenous Zeitgebers
      • Endogenous Pacemakers
        • Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
        • Light in the Optic Chiasm
        • DeCoursey: Chipmunks study
        • Ralph et al: Mutant hamsters
        • Melatonin (SAD)
      • Exogenous Zeitgebers
        • External cues: light
        • Social cues
        • Campbell and Murphy: Light on the knee
      • Evaluation
        • Beyond the master clock: Damiola and mice feeding habits
        • Ethics in animal studies
        • Overstated influence of Exogenous Zeitgebers: artic time zones
        • Cannot separate cues: lack of validity
        • Confounding variables and the lack of control in studies

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