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  • biopsychology- neurons
    • neuron- basic building block of the nervous system- process and transmit info through electrical and chemical signals
      • sensory neurons- carry messages from PNS to CNS- have long dendrites and short axons
        • relay neurons-connect sensory neurons to motor or other relay neurons- short dendrites and short axons
          • motor neurons- connect CNS to effectors- short dendrites and long axons
    • structure of a neuron
      • cell body (soma)- includes a nucleus
      • dendrites- protrude from body- carry nerve impulses from other neurons towards cell body
      • axon- carries impulses away down length of neuron- covered in fatty layer of myelin sheath- protects axon and speeds up transmission
      • if myelin sheath was continuous it would slow the impulse, so its segmented by gaps called nodes of ranvier
      • terminal buttons- at end of axon-communicate with nect neuron across synapse
    • electrical transmission
      • when a neuron is in resting state the inside is negatively charged comapred to outside
      • when neuron is activated by stimulus, the inside becomes positively charged- causing an action potential
        • the creates an impulse that travels down the axon towards the end of the neuron
          • if strong enough it will pass along to axon so it can pass the impulse out to terminal buttons- leads to chemical communication


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