biology unit B6

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  • biology unit B6
    • bacteria
      • parts of bacteria and their functions
        • flagellum (TAIL) used for movement
        • cell wall stops the cell from bursting maintains the shape
        • DNA used for replication and controlling the cell
      • can be different shapes such as rods spheres spirals and crescents
      • bacteria reproduce by splitting in two (asexual reproduction called binary fission)
      • it is possible to grow bacteria but it must be done in aseptic conditions to avoid cross contamination
        • this is known as aseptic conditions
      • bacteria are very good at surviving because
        • can survive on a large range of energy sources
      • they can reproduce fast this means they can spoil food of cause disease as such they need to be handled with extreme care
    • yeast
      • can be grown quicker by
        • changing food avliblity
        • changing temperature
          • for every ten degrees rise in tem growth rete double until optimum temperature is reached
        • changing PH
        • removing waste
    • viruses
      • these are small structes made of  protein coat that surrounds genetic material
      • can only reproduce in other living cells and they only attack soporific cells which can be plant animal or even bacteria
      • how a virus reproduces
        • attach itself to a host cell
          • use the cell to make the compnets for the vireses and then build them
            • cause the host cell to split open and die to relse these viruses
    • harmful microorganisms
      • how they spread
        • raw food for example salmonella
        • in dirty water for example cholera
        • direct contact e.g. the common cold
        • in the air e.g. the flu
      • what happens when they get in the body ?
        • it reproduce without causing symptoms
          • incubation period
          • the microbes then produce toxins
            • these cause the symptoms
      • natural disasters and deiasase spread
        • these can increase deiase spread because of
          • sewer systems maybe damaged so water becomes contaminated
          • food decays because the refrigerators working o food decays
          • large numbers of people moving to other areas means many facility's aren't able o cope
          • hospitals can be damaged or their may be  a shortage of medical staff
      • the tree most important discovery's about diseases
        • Louis pasture discovered the germ theory
        • joseph leister who used carbolic acid to prevent infection
        • sir alexander Fleming who discovered penicillin
      • antiseptics and antibiotics
        • anti septic are used outside off the body to stop harmful microbes from entering
        • antibiotics are used inside the body to kill microbes that have already entered
        • antiseptics work on most microbes but antibiotics have no effect on viruses
        • some Bactria are becoming immune to antibiotics as they have mutated to rest them then pass this mutation on
          • to counter this doctors have only give out antibiotics when really necessary and made sure patients always finish the full corse
  • bacteria are very good at surviving because
    • can survive on a large range of energy sources


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