biology unit B5 part 2

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  • biology unit B5 part 2
    • bone
      • a long bone is a long bone shaft with bone marrow and blood vessels in it and a head of cartilage at each end
      • long bones are hollow so they are stronger and lighter than solid bones
      • because bones are living tissue they can be infected by bacteria and viruses however they an grow and repair them self
      • they can be broken by a sharp impact
      • the bones of the elderly can lack calcium and phosphorous so can be more prone to breaks and fractures
      • if you break vertebrae in the back bone you can cause paralysis
    • joints
      • synovial joints , such as ball and socket joints contain synovial fluid and a synovial membrane ,ligaments  and cartilage
      • a ball and socket has a wider range of movement as it can move all around whereas a hinge joint can only move up and down
      • the forearm is raised and lowered by antagonistic muscles this means two muscles work together in opposite ways to each other
        • to raise the for arm the biceps contracts and the triceps relax
        • to lower the for arm the biceps relax and the triceps contract
      • parts of the synovial joints and their functions
        • the synovial fluid acts as a cushion against shock
        • synovial membrane holds the synovial fluid in place
        • cartilage protects the bones head
        • ligaments hold the bone in place
    • digestion
      • physical is breaking food down into smaller pieces allows food to pass through the digestive system more easily  and provides lager surface area for chemical digestion
      • chemical digestion happens in three places the mouth the stomach and the small intestines
        • mouth
          • carbohydrdrea break down starch into sugar
        • small intestine
          • lipase break down fats into fatty acids and glycerol
      • starch is broken down in two steps
        • step one break down stearch to a substance called maltose
        • step two break it down again to form glucose
      • bile is stored in the gall bladder it is realised into the small intestine to emulsify fats therefor increasing the surface area for the enzymes to work on
      • food adsorption
        • food molecules need to be small and soluble to pass through the wall of the small intestine
        • digested carbohydrates and proteins are soluble as such easily diffuse through the small intestine into the blood
          • the small intestine is adapted for efficient food adsorption it has a lot of capillary's as well as a extensive lymphatic system  of lacteals which contain lymph
            • the small intestine also has a large surface area due to many villi in the walls of the small intestine
        • the fatty acids are not soluble so would clog blood vessels they diffuse from the wall of the small intestine to the lymph
    • running repairs
      • a hole in the heart allows oxgnated and unoxgenated blood to mix this is cause by a hole in every babys heart as they don't need lungs until they are born this usually closes but if it doesn't can be fixed by surgery
      • if you have a blockage in the coronary system  you can have a blood vessel form another part of your body taken out and used to bypass the blockage
      • you can have thee valves in you heart replaced or repaired by surgery
      • major heart problems can be corrected using a donor heart
        • their are problems with this however as donor shortage finding tissue matches surgery risks and a life time of tacking immune speresents
      • their are also small electrical pumps that can be used this gives the blood extra pressure allowing damaged mussels to repair
      • blood transfusions
        • blood can be donated and transfused their are different blood groups get the wrong one and the blood will clot in the body
        • anti colaglens are used to stop the blood from clotting when it has been donated
        • agglutinins two proteins  antigen a or antigen b on surface of redblood cells two antibodies in blood anti a or anti b
          • anti a will react to antigen b and anti b will react to antigen a but anti a will not react with antigen a and b won't react with b
    • waste disposal
      • all excess amino acids can be broken down by the liver and made into urea which is added with water and salts to make urine
      • blood containing waste products it enters the kidneys through the renal artery. the blood without waste leaves by the renal vein each kidney has an outer cortex and an inner medulla waste removed from the kidney leaves through the ureters as urine
      • the blood flows into kidneys under high pressure so filtration in the kidney occurs under high pressure any thing that is useful such as salts and glucose are reabsorbed back into the blood
      • each kidney has lots of  microscopic tubules where filtration takes place
      • what nephrons have
        • a network of capillary's surrounded by a capsule : this forms a filtration unit
        • a region where some materials like salt and glucose are reabsorbed
        • somewhere where some salts and water can be reabsorbed


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