Biology unit  B5 part one

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  • Biology unit  B5
    • circulation
      • the circulatory system
        • the circulatory system runs all over the body
        • consists of the veins capillary's and arteries
        • used to provide oxygen and glucose to cells and to take waste away
        • this is a closed double circulatory system
      • the heart
        • receives blood from veins all over the body
          • then the heart pumps it to the lungs to releases CO2 and pick up O2
            • this oxygen rich blood goes back to the heart
              • pumped into arteries then into capillaries giving oxygen and glucose to the organs
                • this icon means linked
        • the heart is a double pump the right is for deoxygenated blood the left for oxygenated
          • the heart has four chambers
            • their are four one way valves within the heart the bicuspid valves and the tricuspid valves
              • these valves are to stop the back flow of blood in the heart
        • the right ventricle is thinner than the left ventricle as the left ventricle need to produce more pressure as the blood needs to flow all round the body
        • the left is thinner as it only needs to go to the lungs
        • the heart has its own set of blood vessels that supply it with glucose and oxygen this is caked the coronary system
          • this is need because the hearts cells are working constantly
          • a heart attack often happens because their is al clot in the coronary system
        • Untitled
      • blood
        • blood consists of
          • plasma the liquid part of the blood itself
            • this is the liquid part of the blood
            • 90% water
            • carry's everything that is in the blood
              • materials needed for cellular processes such as oxygen or glucose
              • waste products given off by cells such as carbon dioxide and urea
              • hormones used for body processes
              • anti bodies anti toxins and white blood cells
              • material needed for blood clotting
          • platelets used to form scabs just dead cells
            • when their is a cut in the skin platelets gather and stick together to form a sort of temporary plug for the wound
            • cloting agents the form a typer of fiber traping the red blood cells outside the veins/ artery's and form a scab
          • red blood cells used for the transport of carbon dioxide oxge glucose and wase materals to and from cells
            • these are biconcave discs that are shaped this way in order to carry the maximum amount of oxgen
            • they are formed in the bone marrow
            • filled with the protein haemoglobin made to carry oxygen
            • have no nucleus
            • it carry's oxygen from places of high concentration the lungs to places of low concentration the cells
          • white blood cells used to fight of infection
            • they have a nucleus
            • have different shape and functions to he red blood cell
            • two types of white blood cells
              • phagocytes used to eat infections and any dead tissue or cells
              • lymphocytes create antibodies that kill or cause the viruses to stick together
    • respiratory systems
      • amphibians use their most permeable skin and simple lungs to obtain oxygen
      • fishes have gills to obtain oxygen but they only work under water
      • this is how human lungs work
        • when inhaling
          • the ribs are moved up and out the diaphragm moves down wards. the pressure is bigger on the outside than the inside due to the lager volume so air is forced in
        • when exhaling
          • the ribs move down and in the diagphram returns to it's dome like shape as such the volume decreases so their is higher pressure inside than outside so the air is forced out
      • total lung capacity = tidal air the normal amount of air we normal breathe in  the vital capacity the maximum amount of air we can breath in and finally the residual ain air left in the alveoli so they don't close
    • heart rate
      • when excising the heart rate increases
      • it is increased also by the presence of the hormone adrenalin
      • their are cells in the heart that form pacemakers which control the heart rate by producing a small electrical current causing the heart to beat
      • the electrocardiogram and echocardiogram can be used to investigate irregular heart actions
      • their are two pace makers in the heart the san and the avn the san causes the atria to contact with triggers the avn with causes the ventricles to contract
    • the Skelton
      • cartilage
        • it is living tisse containing cells
        • when your a baby the Skelton wqs made mostly of cartilage it was then changed into bones through a proses called ossification this is when calcium and phosphorus are added to the cartilage turning it into bone
        • children's bones have cartilage at the en this supplies growing space for the cartilage to turn into bone

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