biology unit b4

every thing you need to know for unit B4

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  • biology unit b4
    • unit b4
      • diffusion
        • diffusion happens in gasses and liquids but not solids
        • it always goes from high concentration to low  concentration
          • this is called defusing down the  concentration gradient
          • the greater the difference the faster the spread
          • this is a passive proccess as it requires no energy
        • diffusion is a self staining reaction therefor  requires no energy
        • the cell membrane controls the movement in and out of the cell
        • the cell membrane
          • it is semi permeable
            • this means it will only allow cearitn substances through
          • an example would be a mussel cell it lets oxygen carbon dioxide and water through but not without active transport
            • this means it will only allow cearitn substances through
      • osmosis
        • this is diffusion with only liquids
      • photosyntheis
        • green plants make their own food through photosynis
        • this process turns light energy into chemical energy
        • equation symbol 6H20+6CO2--> C6H12O6+ 6O2
          • don't forget to put light energy on top of the arrow and chlorophyll underneath the arrow
        • the leaf is where this proces is mainly happens
        • cells involved in photosynthesis
          • palisade mesophyll layer
            • this is where most of he cells that contain chlorophyll are so this  is the main sight for photosynthesis
          • vascular tissue
            • this is the  xylem wich carry water and the phlome with carry sugars
          • spongy mesophyll layer
            • this layer is for the transpiration of water and the diffusion of gasses such as carbon dioxide and oxygen
              • Air spaces provide a large surface area for gaseous exchange
          • stoma
            • pores that open and close to allow
    • unit B4 part 2
      • in a plant two sets of vascular bundles carry sugars minerals and water throughout the plant
        • the other vascular bundle is called phloem this has the job of carrying sugars and minerals round the whole plant
          • this process also takes glucose from the leaves round the plant
      • transpiration
        • this is how leaves lose water to the environment
        • most water is lost through the stomata however some is still lost through the waxy cuticle layer at the top and  the lower cuticle layer
        • one way of measure in the rate of transpiration is by using a piece of equipment called a bubble pedometer
        • factor affecting transpiration
          • air movement = wind blows away water vapour around the leaf as diffusion is quickened
          • air humidity = the less humid it is the more water is given to the environment because of diffusion
          • temperature  = hot weather more water evaporates so higher transportation rates
          • soil water = less water in the soil less transpiration
          • less light a night time there fore less CO2 needed for photosynthesis so stomata close causing a lower transpiration rate
      • guard cells open and close the stoma their fore control what goes in and out of the cell
        • these affect transpiration as the can close decreasing the rate of transpiration
      • plants need minerals
        • phosphorous deficiency
          • this is important in the plant without it their is poor root growth and almost no chlorophyll as such the plant cannot photosynthesises properly
        • nitrogen deficiency
          • they cannot make chlorophyll so barely develop as such leaves go yellow and their is poor root growth
        • potassium deficiency
          • has bad root growth has yellow leaves with brown splodges and tends to die prematurely and has poor flower growth
        • magnesium deficiency
          • causes yellow leaves
    • decay
      • earthworms maggots and wood lice are called detritivores as they feed on decaying material
        • they increase the rate of decay by breaking up the decaying material leaving more surface area for the microbes to break the materials down
      • ways of increasing decay
        • by increasing the amount of oxygen the bacteria will divide faster so decay will be quicker
        • if you increase he temperature  to the optimum temperature than the enzymes will work better as such they will speed up the breakdown of the decay
        • moisture this will creat the conditions that detritivores like so decay will go faster
    • preserving food
      • can it make it air tight so no bacteria can get to the food
      • add salt rids of all water causing the bacteria to die
      • add salt has same effect as adding sugar
        • add salt rids of all water causing the bacteria to die
      • pickle it ph too low so it kills the bacteria
      • freeze or cool it stops the bacteria from dividing puts them in a sort of temporary stasis
  • photosyntheis
    • green plants make their own food through photosynis
    • this process turns light energy into chemical energy
    • equation symbol 6H20+6CO2--> C6H12O6+ 6O2
      • don't forget to put light energy on top of the arrow and chlorophyll underneath the arrow
    • the leaf is where this proces is mainly happens
    • cells involved in photosynthesis
      • palisade mesophyll layer
        • this is where most of he cells that contain chlorophyll are so this  is the main sight for photosynthesis
      • vascular tissue
        • this is the  xylem wich carry water and the phlome with carry sugars
      • spongy mesophyll layer
        • this layer is for the transpiration of water and the diffusion of gasses such as carbon dioxide and oxygen
          • Air spaces provide a large surface area for gaseous exchange
      • stoma
        • pores that open and close to allow

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