biology unit 2

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  • BIOLOGY UNIT 2
    • cells, organs and populations
      • cells
        • plant
          • all animal parts.
            • with a few extras like, cell walls, permanent vacuole and chloroplasts.
        • animal
          • nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria, ribosomes
        • yeast
          • single celled organism
        • bacterial
          • have no nucleus, gene strands
        • diffusion
          • diffusion is the passive movement of particles down the concentration gradient occurring in liquids and gases
          • works in cells to move useful things across a semi permeable membrane (cell membrane). tings like
            • oxygen, glucose, amino acids and water
              • unit 2 does not require you to know of osmosis
        • specialised cells
          • guard cells
            • guard cells are designed to open and close pores
          • blood cells
            • white
              • white blood cells are a big part of the immune system.
                • white blood cells create anti toxins and anti bodies which fight off diseases. they also perform phagocytosis, which is literally eating the pahtogens
            • red
              • designed not to carry blood but to carry oxygen, has a dimpled surface to increase surface area
          • gametes
            • sperm
              • specilised to 'swim' to the egg to bond with it. strong tail to move and loads of mitochondria to make energy. the dna is in the head
            • egg
              • main functions are to carry the female dna and to nourish the developing embryo in the early stages. the egg contains huge food reserves to feed the embryo
          • palisade cells
            • designed for support of the plant. has a cell wall to do the job of bones in humans
      • cell organisation
        • goes
          • cell, tissue organs, organ system, organism
      • photosynthesis........................... this ones a biggy
        • equation
          • CO2 +water
            • =
              • oxygen +glucose
        • rate of photosynthesis
          • almost always a question on it
          • rate of photosynthesis has three limiting factors
            • light
              • lack of light slows it down
            • temperature
              • temperature has to be just right, too cold enzymes dont work properly, too hot and they just denature
            • co2
              • lack of co2 slows it down
      • how do plants use glucose
        • there is 5 ways that plants use glucose
          • seeds
          • for cellulose/cell wall
          • making proteins
          • for respiration
          • making starch
      • distribution
        • basically where stuff lives
        • uses of samples like random
        • and stratified. which is where you sample every given amount, for example every 5 meters in a given direction. and keep that the same.
    • enzymes and gentics
      • enzymes
        • enzymes are biological catalysts
          • something that speeds up reactions by providing a different approach
        • enzymes in digestion
          • amylase converts starch into sugars
            • its found in saliva, the pancreas and the small intestine
          • protease converts proteins into amino acids
            • it is found in the stomach (where it is called pepsin), its also in the pancreas, and the small intestine
          • lipase breaks down lipids into glycerol and fatty acids
            • found in the pancreas and small intestine
      • respiration
        • aerobic
          • with oxygen
        • anaerobic
          • without oxygen
          • builds up an oxygen debt
            • oxygen debt is where the body doesnt have any oxygen for the muscles so when exercise is finished it takes in all the oxygen it needed a moment ago
          • anaerobic respiration creates lactic acid which burns the muscles
        • the eqaution is the reverse of the photosynthesis  one

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