Biology: Its A Green World

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  • Biology: its a green world
    • estimating population sizes
      • use quadrat and scale up
      • capture - mark - pecapture - estimate
      • population size = number in first sample x number in second sample / number in second sample previously marked
      • sample size affects accuracy
    • ecosystems and distributions of organisms
      • an ecosystem is all the organisms in an area
      • self supporting apart from sun
      • investigate distribution using transects
    • zonation
      • abiotic factors: light, temperature, water, oxygen, salinity, salt level, soil quality
      • organisms are adapted to live in certain environments
    • biodiversity
      • variation between individuals
      • different species
      • different habitats
      • natural ecosystems have a higher biodiversity
    • photosynthesis
      • 6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
      • carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen
      • for respiration, cell walls, seeds, starch, makes proteins
    • understanding photosynthesis
      • plants gain mass from soil minerals
      • plants gain mass from water
      • plants produce oxygen
    • more on photosynthesis
      • oxygen produced in photosynthesis comes from water
      • no light - no photosynthesis
      • no carbon dioxide - no photosynthesis
      • too cold or too hot - no photosynthesis
    • diffusion
      • gradual movement from high to low concentration
      • diffusion happens in liquid and water
      • rate: distance, concentration difference, surface area
    • leaves and diffusion
      • plants carrry out photosynthesis and respiration
    • leaves and photosynthesis
      • adaptions: broad, thin, stomata, guard cells, air spaces
      • leaves have a network of vascular bundles
    • osmosis
      • osmosis is the net movement of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane from a region of high to low concentration
      • turgor pressure helps support the plant tissues
      • animal cells are inelastic
      • if an animal cell takes on too much water it bursts
    • transport systems in plants
      • phloem tubes transport food
      • xylem vessels take water up
      • root cross, stem cross, leaf cross
    • water flow through plants
      • root hairs take in water by osmosis
      • a large surface area allows more water absorbtion
      • transpirationis the loss of water from the plant
      • transpiration rates increased by: more light, higher temperature, increase in air movement, decrease in humidity
      • plants need to balance water loss with water uptake
    • minerals needed for healthy growth
      • nitrates make amino acids and proteins
      • phosphates help respiration and growth
      • potassium help enzymes needed for photosynthesis and respiration
      • magnesium is also needed in small amounts
    • decay
      • things decay due to microorganisms
      • detritivores and saprophytes feed on decaying material
      • preservation: canning, cooling, freezing, drying, salt, vinegar
    • intensive farming
      • used to produce more food
      • using herbicides to kill weeds, pesticides to kill insects, and battery farming
      • hydroponics is where plants are grown without soil
      • can destroy environment, due to pesticides and fertilisers
    • pesticides and biological control
      • pesticides can kill animals vital in a food chain
      • biological control uses living things rather than chemicals
      • advantages:no chemicals, no repeating
      • disadvantages: predator may not eat pest, could eat useful species, population may increase, may spread
    • alternatives to intensive farming
      • organic fertilizers better for environment
      • crop rotation stops pests building up
      • weeding involves no chemicals
      • varying seed planting times avoids major perst
      • biological control
      • advantages:fewer chemicals, better for environment ethical treatment of animals
      • disadvantages: more space used, more labour intensive, cant grow as much food

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