Biology: Beyond The Miscroscope

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  • Biology: beyond the microsope
    • bacteria
      • asexual reproduction
      • - seal dish - wear gloves - burn bacteria - pressure sterilising
      • lactobacillus bacteria turns lactose sugar into lactic acid making yoghurt
      • rods, curved rods, sph
    • microorganism and disease
      • viruses can only reproduce in living cells
      • transmitted by; food, water, airborn droplets or water
      • poor sanitation is linked with a high rate of incidence
    • treating infectious diseases
      • - enters body - reproduces - produce toxins - causes symptoms
      • antiseptics used on surface
      • antibiotics used inside body
      • if over or underused could create resistance
    • more on infectious diseases
      • natural disasters spread disease rapidly
      • Pasteur - microbes
      • Lister -  treat wounds
      • Fleming - penecillin
      • ethanol can be used as a fuel
    • yeast
      • glucose -> ethanol + carbon dioxidee
      • C6H12O6 -> 2C2H5O+ 2CO2
      • glucose + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water
      • produces faster: warmer, more glucose, correct pH
      • produces slower: build up of toxic waste
    • brewing
      • grain -> yeast ->sugar into alcohol ->clarifying agents make it clearer -> pasteurized to kill yeast or left to ferment longer
    • biofuels
      • organic material contains energy
      • 70% methane 30% carbon dioxide with hydrogen and nitrogen
      • uses: power turbines, burned for heating or fuel for cars
      • 30-40 degrees for decomposing bacteria
      • needs: inlet, outlet, and pipe to collect biogas
    • more on biofuels
      • disadvantages: not as much energy, habitat loss
      • renewable source
      • cars can use gasohol
      • less crude oil usage
      • advantages:sustainable, removes CO2, doesnt produce harmful particulates
      • removes CO2
    • soils
      • types: sandy, clay, loam (sand+clay)
      • soils contain  humus
      • you can measure the water and humus content
      • take the mass of the sample of soil
      • heat to 105 degrees to boil off water
      • heat to 550 degrees to burn off humus
      • take mass reading to determine difference
    • life in the soil
      • must contain water and oxygen to sustain life
      • humus broken down by decomposers releases minerals and nutrients
      • humus also increases oxygen content
      • earthworms are good for soil structure
      • bury leaves to be decomposed
      • burrows airate and drain
      • distribute nutrients
      • worms excrement is less acidic than eaten soil thus neutralising
      • farmers buy worms to improve soil
    • life in water
      • advantages:hydration, steady temperature, supports organisms with no skeleton, excretion is well dispersed
      • disadvantages: resistant to movement, need water regulation
      • salt water could shrivel cells
      • fresh water could swell or burst cells through osmosis
      • zooplankton = little animals
      • phytoplankton = little plants
      • phytoplankton are main producers in water
    • more on life in water
      • photosynthesis is affected by: temperature, light and minerals
      • more phytoplankton in summer
      • more light for photosynthesis
      • warmer thus more growth
      • more zooplankton due to more food
    • enzymes in action
      • some stains contain starch, protein and fats
      • biological washing  poweders contain enzymes to break these down
      • these work best at moderate temperatures
      • may not work in acid or alkali tap water
      • some  powders contain specific enzymes
      • in the food industry
      • sucrase is used to breake sucrose into glucose and fructose
      • this means more sweetness using less sugar
      • rennet is used to clot milk to make cheese
      • pectinase is used to make a fruit cell release its juice
    • more enzymes in action
      • immobilizing enzymes makes them easier to remove
      • separated from mixture
      • immobilized in alginate beads
      • immobilized enzymes are still active
      • diabetics use reagent strips: blood is added to the strip with enzymes, causing it to change colour
    • more on genetic engineering
      • alters genetic code
      • transfer genes from one to other
      • modified is called transgenic
      • identify gene
      • remove gene
      • cut open host dna
      • insert gene into host dna
      • clone
    • dna fingerprinting
      • dna from hair, blood, skin or seme
      • extract dna
      • dna cut into fragments
      • separated using electrophoresis
      • small sections closer to positive anode
      • placed on photographicfilm

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