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  • Biology B7.2
    • Humans have a double circulatory system. This means that blood is pumped around two loops around the body and the lungs.
      • Blood carries glucose molecules and oxygen to the muscle.
        • It them carries waste products (eg: carbon dioxide and urea) away from the muscles.
    • Components of blood.
      • Red blood cells : They transport oxygen.
      • White blood cells: they fight infections. They can kill them or engulf them.
      • Plasma: it is the liquid part that transports nutrients, antibodies, Hormones and waste.
    • Red Blood Cells are adapted to their function.
      • They are packed with haemoglobin to bind with oxygen. They have no nucleus so there is more space for haemoglobin. It has a biconcave shape to increase surface area for oxygen exchange.
    • The main structures of the circulatory system the blood passes through are : Pulmonary Vein, Left atrium, Left ventricle Aorta, Vena cava, Right atrium, right ventricle, Pulmonary artery.
    • There are vales in the heart and veins to stop blood from flowing backwards.
    • Tissue Fluid Formation
      • When blood flows into the capillary beds it is under high pressure
        • Plasma is forced into tissues at high pressure
          • Oxygen and glucose diffuse from the fluid into cells


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