Biology - B4

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  • Created on: 16-05-13 18:01
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  • Biology - B4
    • Features of All Living Things
      • MRS GREN
        • Movement
        • Respiration
        • Sensitivity
        • Growth
        • Reproduction
        • Excreation
        • Nutrition
    • Enzymes
      • Define: Enzyme - the catalysts that speed up chemical reactions in living things
      • They are proteins - Large molecules that are made up of long chain amino acids
      • The reaction takes place in the ACTIVE SITE
      • Lock & Key model
    • Keeping Prime Conditions for Enzymes
      • Optimum Temperature 37 degrees
        • Denatured The shape of the Active Site is changed
      • Optimum PH
        • Salivary Amylase 4.8
        • Pepsin 2.0
        • Catalyse 7.6
    • Enzymes at Work in Plants
      • Photosynthesis, plants made all molecules the need for growth
      • Glucose  carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
      • photosynthesis takes place in the Chloroplasts
      • Purposes of glucose
        • Making other chemicals needed for growth
        • storing energy in starch molecules
        • Releasing energy in repiration
    • Diffusion & Gas Exchange in Plants
      • Diffusion moving from a high concentration to a low concentration
      • Photosynthesis  special structures allow chemicals oexcess chemicals to be diffused
      • Stomata, small holes which allow CO2  in and O2 out
    • Minerals from the Soil
      • To make proteins you need Nitrogen
        • Mostly plants take this from nitrogen ions in the sol
          • These are absorbed by Root Hair Cells
        • Nitrate Ions are absorbed by active transport
          • Moving from area of LOW to HIGH concentration, moved by energy
    • Osmosis
      • Osmosis is diffusion of Water Molecules
      • Again from a HIGH to LOW concentration
      • Low Concentration means a dilute solution
      • Glucose is stored as starch as GLUCOSE is a carbohydrate and is insoluble.  Starch is smaller
    • The rate of Photosynthesis
      • Faster, increase light intensity
      • Limiting Factor
        • increase light intensity may reduce water etc
      • CO2 Levels
        • By increasing the CO2 concentration does not affect the rate of photosynthesis
    • Environments and Adaptations
      • Habitats change the rate of growth
    • Energy for Life
      • Aerobic Respiration
        • Normal Breathing
        • Glucose reacts with food to make energy
      • All respiration releases energy from glucose
      • Polymers of Glucose are made of  Starch and Cellulose
    • Anaerobic Respiration
      • Glucose -> lactic acid
      • For when Oxygen is limited
      • For short periods of time
      • Plants use when roots are waterlogged etc.
      • Anaerobic Respiration is used in Yeast and ethanol is produced instead of lactic acid
    • Useful Products
      • Bioethanol from Sugar
      • Biofuels
      • Biogas from waste

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