B3: Heart, lungs and kidneys

Some info on each these key parts of B3 :)

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  • Created by: khastie
  • Created on: 12-05-14 17:08
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  • B3 Heart, lungs, kidneys
    • Ventilating the lungs
      • Positive pressure
        • air is forced through trachea into lungs
        • E.G. breathing aids
        • Are small, easier to manage and can be linked to computers
      • Negative pressure
        • Iron lung
          • 1. Person has chest inside cylinder
          • 2. Air is drawn out of the cyclinder
          • 3. When air is drawn out, person breathes in
          • 4. When air is pumped back into the cylinder, the person is forced to breathe out
    • Kidney
      • Urea is filtered out of the blood, leaves body in urine
      • Glucose is filtered out of the blood and then reabsorbed by active transport
        • Glucose is needed for respiration
      • Water is filtered out of the blood, whatever the body needs is reabsorbed by osmosis
      • Salts/ mineral ions are removed and then whatever is required is reabsorbed by active transport
      • Blood cells and proteins stay in blood- too large
        • Indicator of kidney disease- protein or blood cells in urine
      • Dialysis
        • 1. Blood taken out of an artery in the arm
        • 2. Blood thinners are added to avoid the blood clotting
        • 3. Flows into a dialysis machine
        • 4. Machine contains isotonic dialysis fluid
        • 5. Works as a normal kidney, air is removed from blood and goes into body through a vein in arm
    • The heart
      • Double circulatory system
      • Blood vessels
        • Veins
          • Large lumen
          • Thin walls
          • Valves to prevent back-flow of blood
          • Thin muscular fibres
        • Capillaries
          • Walls a single cell thick
          • Narrow lumen
          • Flow through organs
        • Arteries
          • Take blood away from the heart
          • Thick muscular fibres- flood at high pressure
          • Thick walls
          • Small lumen
      • Pulmonary vein- brings oxygenated blood from lungs to the heart
      • Pulmonary artery- takes de-oxygenated blood to the lungs
      • Aorta- takes oxygenated blood to the body
      • Vena cava- brings deoxygenated blood from the body and head to the heart


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