Biology B3.2 (Transporting Materials)

Mindmap on AQA GCSE Biology unit B3.2.  Includes the heart, circulatory system, the blood & bloodflow, transport in plants and ideas on artificial blood/hearts,

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  • Created by: Ethan
  • Created on: 26-03-13 17:46
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  • Biology B3.2 (Transporting Materials)
    • The Blood
      • The Blood Plasma contains:
        • Red Blood Cells
          • Biconcave Disks with NO NUCLEUS
          • Contain the red pigment haemoglobin
            • the haemoglobin combines with oxygen in the lungs to form oxyhaemoglobin
          • Carry oxyhaemoglobin to all the organs where it splits into oxygen and haemoglobin
            • Haemoglobin + oxygen = oxyhaemoglobin in a reversible reaction
              • the haemoglobin combines with oxygen in the lungs to form oxyhaemoglobin
          • Adapted because; 1) lots of them 2) they contain haemoglobin 3) have no neucleas
        • White Blood Cells
          • Contain a necleas
          • Form part of the body's defence system against micro-organisms
        • Platelets
          • Are small 'fragments' of cells
          • Do not contain a nucleas
          • Help to clot the blood at the site of a wound
      • The Blood is a tissue
      • Blood Plasma transports many substances
        • CO2 from organs to the lungs
        • Soluble products of digestion from small intestine to other organs
        • Urea from the liver to kidneys
    • Transport In Plants
      • Flowering Plants have two separate transport systems
        • PHLOEM tissue carries dissolved sugars from the leaves to the rest of the plant
        • XYLEM tissue transports water and mineral ions
          • Water is gathered by osmosis in the roots and then transported to the stem, leaves and flowers
            • This creates a transpiration stream
      • Xylem transports in ONE direction, phloem are TWO-DIRECTIONAL
    • Circulatory System + the Heart
      • the circulatory system consists of the heart, blood vessels and the blood
      • The heart
        • Muscular organ that pumps blood around the body
        • The right pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs
          • After returning from the lungs, the left side pumps oxygenated blood around the body
        • After returning from the lungs, the left side pumps oxygenated blood around the body
        • The muscular heart wall is thicker on the left side because it has to pump blood all around the body
        • Has 4 chambers
          • Upper chambers are the left/right atria
          • Lower chambers are left/right ventricles
        • Valves in the heart prevent blood flow in the wrong direction.
        • The Coronary Arteries supply oxygenated blood to the heart
    • Artificial:
      • Problems
        • The heart keeps blood flowing around the body.  If blood vessels are blocked or too narrow blood will not flow efficiently- this deprives organs of nutrients & oxygen.
          • Stents can be inserted to keep blood vessels open
            • Particularly beneficial to when coronary arteries become narrowed due to fatty deposits
          • Leaky valves mean blood could be flowing in the wrong direction
            • Artificial or animal valves can be inserted to replace damaged valves
      • Blood
        • The Blood
          • The Blood Plasma contains:
            • Red Blood Cells
              • Biconcave Disks with NO NUCLEUS
              • Contain the red pigment haemoglobin
                • Carry oxyhaemoglobin to all the organs where it splits into oxygen and haemoglobin
                  • Haemoglobin + oxygen = oxyhaemoglobin in a reversible reaction
                  • Adapted because; 1) lots of them 2) they contain haemoglobin 3) have no neucleas
                • White Blood Cells
                  • Contain a necleas
                  • Form part of the body's defence system against micro-organisms
                • Platelets
                  • Are small 'fragments' of cells
                  • Do not contain a nucleas
                  • Help to clot the blood at the site of a wound
              • The Blood is a tissue
              • Blood Plasma transports many substances
                • CO2 from organs to the lungs
                • Soluble products of digestion from small intestine to other organs
                • Urea from the liver to kidneys
            • Plasma + Saline solution
              • Saline is sterile salt water
              • plasma carries dissolved oxygen
              • Doesn't clot blood or fight diseases
            • Haemoglobin Based
              • Haemoglobin is taken from human or animal blood
              • Doesn't contain red blood cells
              • Carries more oxygen than normal blood
              • Broken down quickly (20-30 hours)
            • Perflucarbons (PFC's)
              • White entirely synthetic substances- often given to people with cancer
              • Non-reactive but carry gases
              • Do not dissolve in water- so are difficult to get into the blood
            • Blood from donors can be transfused into humans to increase blood volume
            • Donated blood must be refrigerated
          • Hearts
            • Artificial hearts are used for people waiting for a normal heart
            • Plastic hearts are extremely delicate and are sowed into the patient
            • Advantages / Disadvantages;
              • Many people are helped
                • Untitled
              • Are only temporary
            • Lack of donors for real hearts so artificial ones have to be developed
        • Blood Flow
          • Arteries
            • Carry blood away from the heart
            • Have thick walls containing muscle and elastic tissue
              • Because of the high pressure of the blood
          • Capileries
            • Narrow, thin walled (a single cell thick) vessels
            • Carry the blood through organs and allow for exchange of substances with all living cells
          • Problems
            • The heart keeps blood flowing around the body.  If blood vessels are blocked or too narrow blood will not flow efficiently- this deprives organs of nutrients & oxygen.
              • Stents can be inserted to keep blood vessels open
                • Particularly beneficial to when coronary arteries become narrowed due to fatty deposits
              • Leaky valves mean blood could be flowing in the wrong direction
                • Artificial or animal valves can be inserted to replace damaged valves
          • Veins
            • Often have valves to prevent backflow of blood
            • Have thinner walls than arteries

      Comments

      Izzy Mason

      A bit all over the place would prefer it as cards but good job and ill still give u five stars for the content :)

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