Biology B3.2

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  • Biology B3.2
    • The circulatory system and the heart
      • The Heart!!!!
      • The double circulation system in humans consists of blood vessels, bloods and the heart
      • Blood flows in one direction
        • Valves prevent backflow of blood
      • The right pump forces deoxygenated blood from the lungs where it picks up oxygen and loses carbon dioxide
        • After returning to the heart, the oxygenated blood is then pumped to the rest of the body by the left pump
    • Keeping the blood flowing
      • Arteries, veins and capillaries are the main types of blood vessels
      • Substances diffuse between the blood and the cells in the capillaries
      • Blocked or narrow arteries can be widened by stents
      • Damaged heart valves can be replaced
    • Transport in the blood
      • Blood plasma transports dissolved food molecules carbon dioxide & urea
      • Plasma also contains blood cells
      • Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the cells
      • White blood cells are part of the defence system
      • Platelets are involved in blood clotting
    • Artificial or real?
      • There are advantages and disadvantages when using artificial blood or artificial hearts
        • +
          • Does not need to be refridgerated
          • Do not need to match the persons tissue
        • -
          • Expensive
          • Doesn't carry as much oxygen
          • Unpleasant side-effects
          • Lack of heart donors
      • Artificial's are useful when real blood or donor hearts are not available
    • Transport systems in plants
      • Flowering plants have two transport tissues
      • Xylem transports water and mineral ions from the roots to the stems and leaves
      • Phloem transports food, such as dissolved sugar, from the leaves to other parts of the plant


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