Core science: Biology- diet and exercise

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  • Biology: Diet and Exercise
    • Nutrients
      • Three main food groups are: Carbohydrates, proteins and fats
        • Carbohydrates
          • e.g. bread, pasta and rice
          • A source of energy for life processes
        • Proteins
          • e.g. meat, fish and eggs
          • For growth, repair and building cells
        • Fats
          • e.g. cheese, butter and oils
          • A source of energy for life processes and to make cell membranes and insulation
      • The seven nutrients a human needs are: protein, fibre, water, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins and fats
    • Imbalanced diets
      • Too little food cuases a person to be underweight. Too much food causes a person to be overweight
      • Malnourished is not having the right amount of nutrients in a diet
      • A poor diet
        • Overweight, obesity, deficiency diseases
          • E.g. scurvy, rickets and night blindness
    • Metabolic rate
      • The rate of chemical reaction in your cells.
      • Varies due to genetic traits, proportion of muscle to fat, gender and the amount of exercise
    • Exercise
      • Increases good cholesterol
      • Builds muscle tissue, increasing metabolic rate
        • Reduces risk of: arthritis, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease
      • Less likely to be overweight
    • Cholesterol
      • Good cholesterol
        • needed for hormones and cell membranes
        • High-density liproprotein
      • Bad cholesterol
        • Heart disease
        • Low-density lipoprotein


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