Lipids & Denaturation

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  • Created by: tayladave
  • Created on: 18-09-14 21:14
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  • Biology
    • Denaturation
      • The hydrogen bonds are easily broken by heating.
        • As atoms are heated they vibrate more and more up to the point that the hydrogen bonds break.
          • Protein is denatured.
        • You can denature a protein by heating it or changing the PH.
      • Enzymes are proteins.
        • An example is egg; the uncooked protein is heated to become a cooked protein network.
          • The two structures are; GLOBULAR and FIBROUS.
    • Lipids
      • Fats are solid at room temperature whereas Lipids are liquid at room temperature.
      • Lipids are a diverse group of compounds that are insoluable in water but soluable in organic substances eg. solvents such as ethanol.
        • The most common types of lipid are triglycerides, but other important lipids include waxes, steroids and cholesterol.
          • Triglycerides can be fats or oils.
            • Lipids only contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
      • What jobs do Lipids do?
        • Water proofing - Insoluable to water, both plants and insects have waxy cuticles.
        • Energy storage - Lipids provide more than twice the ammount of energy as carbohydrates.
      • Lipids are stored in ADIPOSED tissue, which has several impotant roles.
        • Heat insulation - in mammals adipose tissue underneath the skin helps reduce heat loss.
        • Protection - adipose tissue around delicate organs, acting as a cushion eg. for kidneys.
      • Emulsion test for lipids!
        • 1) Ethanol is added to the sample of lipid and the test tube is shaken so the sample dissolves.
          • 2) Lipids dissolve in ethanol because ethanol is a non polar molecule.
            • 3) The dissolved lipid is added to pure water - in which it is insoluable - where a white cloudy emulsion appears.
    • Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty acids.
      • Saturated fatty acids only contain single bonds between carbon atoms. This makes molecules straight.
        • Polyunsatuated fatty acids contain two or more.
          • Monosaturated contain 1 double bond.
      • Unsaturated fatty acids contain double bonds between carbon atoms, creating a kink to the chain.
        • Monosaturated contain 1 double bond.
    • Phospholipids
      • Its what cell membranes are made of! It contains glycerol and two fatty acids.
      • A polar phosphate is joined to the third hydroxyl group of the glycerol molecule.
        • A polar will interact in water eg. dissolve and is hydrophillic - water loving.
          • A molecule that is both hydrophallic and hydrophobic is omniphillic.
        • A non polar is hydrophobic meaning it wont interact with water.
          • A molecule that is both hydrophallic and hydrophobic is omniphillic.

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