B3(mutations/proteins/enzymes)

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  • Created by: Saffi125
  • Created on: 21-04-14 10:19
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  • Biology B3
    • proteins
      • Collagen
        • structural protein
        • makes bones, skin, tendons etc.
      • Insulin
        • hormone
        • made in the pancreas
        • controls blood sugar levels
      • Haemoglobin
        • carries oxygen to respiring cells
        • carrier protein
        • in red blood cells
      • Enzymes
        • catalysts
        • control all chemical reactions
      • genes
        • some genes are switched off for making a particular protein
    • Enzymes
      • folded into a certain shape
        • this is called the active site
        • the specific substrate can only fit the specific enzyme
      • catalyst for bodies chemical reactions
      • work best at ...
        • optimum temperature (37.5)
          • low temperature results in...
            • not enough energy for collisions
              • low rate of reaction
            • low rate of reaction
          • too hot temperature results in...
            • enzyme becomes denatured
              • substrate molecule can't fit the active site
              • change of shape is irreversable
        • optimum pH
    • Mutations
      • change in a gene
        • DNA replication error??
          • often no external cause
        • could be ionising rays/tabacco smoke
        • Involves a change in the order of nucleotides
          • might now code for a different protein
      • some are harmfull
        • cancer
        • particular enzymes might not work now
        • slightly different shaped haemoglobin (sickle cell anaemia)
      • some are useful
        • pale skin useful for cold countries for Vitamin D
        • variation between species

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