Biology 2, Topic 1

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  • Biology 2, Topic 1
    • Plant and Animal cells
      • Similarities, Both have:
        • Cell Membrane: Protects the cells and  controls what goes into and out of the cell like Oxygen, Glucose and Carbon Dioxide.
        • Cytoplasm- Where chemical reactions take place.
          • Contains organelles- tiny structures that carry out specific jobs
            • Nucleus- An organelle that contains DNA. Controls all the activity of the cell
            • Mitochondria- Organelles where respiration occurs. Provides evergy for the cell.
              • Tiny and cannot be seen through light microscopes at low magnification easily
            • Chloroplasts- Organelles that contain chlorophyll, a green substance that absorbs light energy used in photosynthesis
        • Nucleus- An organelle that contains DNA. Controls all the activity of the cell
        • Mitochondria- Organelles where respiration occurs. Provides evergy for the cell.
          • Tiny and cannot be seen through light microscopes at low magnification easily
      • Differences, Plant cells only have:
        • Cell wall- Made of cellulose to support cells and keep its shape
        • Vacuole- A space in the cytoplasm that is filled with cell sap and helps support the plant by keeping the cells rigid
        • Chloroplasts- Organelles that contain chlorophyll, a green substance that absorbs light energy used in photosynthesis
    • Microscope Magnification Calculations
      • Length of object= the length of magnified object/the magnification
    • DNA
      • Keywords
      • Complimentary base pairings
        • Thymine (T)
          • Adenine (A)
        • Guanine (G)
        • Adenine (A)
        • Cytosine (C)
          • Guanine (G)
        • Joined together by weak hydrogen bonds
      • Importance of the Human Genome Project (HGP)
        • New treatments and cures for disorders e.g gene therapy
        • New ways of finding genes that may increase risk of certain diseases e.g alzheimers
        • New ways of looking at changes in the genome over time- shows how humans evolved and evolutionary relationships between different species
        • Improved testing for genetic disorders, to discover if peoples are carrying a faulty allele
        • Personalised medicines- Medicines that word on a particular  genotype and target diseases more effectively, with fewer side effects
    • Genetically engineering
      • To produce human insulin
        • Cut out the gene that holds the insulin part using the restriction enzyme
          • Also using Restriction enzyme, cut out a bit of the plasmid from bacteria
            • Using DNA ligase, glue the cut out gene to the plasmid of the bacteria chosen
              • Using DNA ligase, put the plasmid back into the bacteria to reproduce
      • Advantages
        • Rice can be altered to contain beta-carotene, it produces Vitamin A so people can eat this "golden rice" and maintain their health
        • Vegetarians and vegans can have it.
      • Disadvantages
        • There are minute differences so it may not be as effective
        • Can be expensive
        • Potential to develope herbacide resistant crops
    • Fertilisation
      • Haploid
        • A cell with a single set of unpaired chomosomes
      • Zygote
        • A diploid resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes (A fertilised Ovum)
          • Gamete- A cell that fuses with another cell in fertilisation
      • Diploid
        • A cell containing  two complete sets of chromosomes. One from each parent
      • Fertilisation
        • the process of fertilising an egg

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