B2

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  • Biology 2
    • Cells, tissues & Organs
      • Parts of a cell are called organelles
      • Plant cell
        • cytoplasm
        • vacuole
        • mitochondria
        • ribosomes
        • nucleus
        • cell wall
        • cell membrane
        • chloroplasts
      • Animal Cells
        • cytoplasm
        • mitochondria
        • ribosomes
          • protein synthesis takes place
        • nucleus
        • cell membrane
      • Plant and Animal cells are grouped together in tissues
      • oxygen & other dissolved substances move in & out of cells through diffusion
    • Plants & Enviroment
      • Chlorophyll in plant cells absorbs energy from sunlight
        • Photosynthesis
          • CO2+H2O --glucose + O
            • glucose used to supply energy
              • make protein for new cells & enzymes
              • makes  cellulose to make cell walls
              • storage for starch & fat
          • Limiting factors: light, temp & CO2 concentration
      • quantitative  data about the distribution of organisms can be collected using quadrats & transects
      • distribution  of different species of organisms in the environment depend on:
        • oxygen, temp, CO2, nutrients, light, water
    • Proteins & respiration
      • Protein molecules= long chained amino acids
      • hormones, antibodies, enzymes all proteins
      • enzymes are biological catalysts  Control metabolic reactions
      • living organisms release energy from glucose by respiration
      • rate enzymes work affected by temp and pH
      • Aerobic respiration
        • energy released when glucose and oxygen mix
        • exercise: muscles use a lot of energy. B rate & H rate increase for more oxygen to go to muscles
      • anaerobic respiration small amount of energy is released from glucose without using oxygen
    • Cell division, inheritance & speciation
      • Mitosis: cell division. results in 2 identical daughter cells
      • meiosis: cell division to produce gametes. Results in genetically different cells.
        • each with half the normal number of chromosomes
      • clones can be created by tissue culture, embryo transplants, adult cell cloning
      • If 2 populations of species become separated a new species can arise
        • natural selection can make them so different they can't interbreed
      • genes pass through generation
        • alleles: a gene controlling a particular characteristics
      • Genetic diagrams are used to predict the probability characteristics will appear on offspring

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GD2016

This is good, however, the text is rather small to see.

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