Biology 1

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  • Chemistry 1
    • Fundamental ideas
      • Substances are made of atoms
        • Containing  protons (1+), neutron (0) and outer shell of nucleus with electrons  (1-)
      • Atomic number=  Number of protons & electrons
      • Mass number: Protons + Neutrons
      • Metals in non-metal compounds are held together with ionic bonds
      • Covalent bonds hold together non-metal compounds.
    • Limestone & Building materials
      • Calcium carbonate (Limestone) can be thermally decomposed to calcium oxide
      • Used for glass, concrete, cement & motar
      • Carbonates react with acids to produce CO2 gas, salt & water
      • CACO2 damaged by acid rain
    • Metals
      • Ores: metals extracted from rocks that contain a large amount of the compiund
      • Extracting copper
        • Bio-leaching :bacteria convert insoluble copper compounds into soluble ones
        • Phytomining:  plants absorb copper compounds and when burnt the ashes contain copper compounds
      • More reactive than copper? Electrolysis.
        • Electrical current passed through to break down compound
      • Transition metals have special properties
    • Crude Oil
      • Made up of hydrocarbons with different boiling points
        • Fractional distilliation
      • Contains mostly alkanes       (Cn H2n+2)
      • Biofuels are made from plants
      • Pollution, CO2 and water are given off if you burn hydrocarbon fuels
    • Substances from Crude Oil
      • Hydrocarbons can be cracked to form smaller, more useful molecules.
      • Alkenes are unsaturated- double bonds (C=C)
        • Alkenes can be used to make polymers (polyethene)
      • Ethanol is produced by fermentation OR reacting steam and ethene
      • Many polymers can't break down
    • Plant Oils
      • Vegetable oils are unsaturated with double carbon-carbon bonds
        • Veg oils give us energy and nutrients
      • Oil and water don't mix
        • Emulsifiers are used to help them mix.
          • Hydrophobic: water fearing
          • Hydrophilic: Water loving
    • Earth & Atmosphere
      • Core, mantle, crust
      • Tectonic plates move due to convection current in mantle.
      • Air is a mixture of gases with different boiling points
      • Oxygen: 21%, Nitrogen:78%
  • Biofuels are made from plants
  • Pollution, CO2 and water are given off if you burn hydrocarbon fuels
  • Air is a mixture of gases with different boiling points

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