B1

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  • BIOLOGY 1
    • KEEPING HEALTHY
      • Metabolic rate: speed chemical reactions take place in body
      • To lose mass, use more energy
        • Eat less,  exercise more
      • High blood cholesterol  leads to heart disease.
        • Creating build up of plaques, causing blocked arteries
      • Antibiotics kill most bacteria
      • White blood cells kill pathogens
        • via phagocytosis, antibodies and antitoxins
        • Vaccination encourages WBC to create antibodies
          • Meaning the person is immune
    • NERVES, HORMONES & DRUGS
      • Sensory neurones carry electrical impulses to the CNS to receptors
      • Motor neurones carry impulses from CNS to effectors
        • muscles and glands
      • Conditions in cells MUST be kept constant
        • Including: Water,sugar and salt concentration
        • Sweating  is one way to reduce temperature
      • Auxins causes plant shoots to grow towards the light and plant roots to grow towards gravity
        • Positive phototropism
        • Positive gravitropism
      • Menstrual cycle
        • FSH: Matures the egg and causes ovary to secrete oestrogen
        • Oestrogen: causes uterus to thicken and stops production of FSH
        • LH: causes ovulation
    • Interdependence & Adaptations
      • Adaptations: characteristics that enable them to live in their enviroment
        • The better the adaptation more likely the organism will  win the competition
      • Decay by micro-organisms is an important way to recycle nutrients
        • Carbon cycle shows how the carbon moves around the atmosphere
      • Energy is lost at each stage in a food chain
        • results in less biomass
        • this can be shown in a pyramid of biomass
      • Pollution levels can be measured by: Temp & pH
        • Or by studying distribution of living pollution indicators
          • Lichens can be used to show air pollution
          • Invertebrates to show water pollution
    • Genes & Evolution
      • Organisms vary because genes they inheritance
      • Asexual reproduction results in clones.
        • taking cuttings (tissue culture) embryo transplants adult cell cloning
      • Sexual reproduction offspring are different from their parents
      • Darwin's ideas about evolution explain how things evolved due to variation and survival
      • Genetic engineering:take a gene from one organism and put it into another one
        • Used to make insulin from bacteria and create GM crops
  • KEEPING HEALTHY
    • Metabolic rate: speed chemical reactions take place in body
    • To lose mass, use more energy
      • Eat less,  exercise more
    • High blood cholesterol  leads to heart disease.
      • Creating build up of plaques, causing blocked arteries
    • Antibiotics kill most bacteria
    • White blood cells kill pathogens
      • via phagocytosis, antibodies and antitoxins
      • Vaccination encourages WBC to create antibodies
        • Meaning the person is immune

Comments

Sonia

This was soooo helpful, thank you very much!

Sanya

thankyouuu

Mas-Alg

:D

Rhianna

Really helpful!

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