Biology - Keeping Healthy

Concerns healthy eating and defending agianst disease.

Hope it's useful.

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  • Created by: Ashleigh
  • Created on: 29-12-12 13:58
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  • Keeping Healthy
    • Diet and Exercise
      • Nutrients: a mixture of different food types is needed to maintain health.
        • Carbohydrates
          • Potatoes, Pasta, Bread, Rice, and Sugar
            • a source of energy for all life processes
        • Proteins
          • Meat, Fish, Eggs and Cheese
            • For growth and repair of cells
        • Fats
          • Cheese, Butter, Margarine and Oils
            • A stored source of energy for all life processes. Also it is needed to build cell membranes and insulate our bodies
        • Minerals and Vitamins
          • Fruit and Vegetables
            • Healthy functioning of the body
        • Fibres (wholegrain wheat) helps digestive system
        • Water, helps absorption and chemical reactions
      • Imbalanced diets causes people malnourished
        • Too little food = Underweight = Malnourished
          • Leads to  deficiency diseases
        • Too much food = overweight = Malnourished
          • Leads to  deficiency diseases
      • If someone's diet consists of food with a lower energy content than the amount of energy there lose due to life processes then they will lose weight
      • Respiration is a chemical reaction that allows cells to release energy from food
        • The metabolic rate is the speed of which these chemical reactions take   place
          • Diet and Exercise
            • Nutrients: a mixture of different food types is needed to maintain health.
              • Carbohydrates
                • Potatoes, Pasta, Bread, Rice, and Sugar
                  • a source of energy for all life processes
              • Proteins
                • Meat, Fish, Eggs and Cheese
                  • For growth and repair of cells
              • Fats
                • Cheese, Butter, Margarine and Oils
                  • A stored source of energy for all life processes. Also it is needed to build cell membranes and insulate our bodies
              • Minerals and Vitamins
                • Fruit and Vegetables
                  • Healthy functioning of the body
              • Fibres (wholegrain wheat) helps digestive system
              • Water, helps absorption and chemical reactions
            • Imbalanced diets causes people malnourished
              • Too little food = Underweight = Malnourished
                • Too much food = overweight = Malnourished
                • If someone's diet consists of food with a lower energy content than the amount of energy there lose due to life processes then they will lose weight
                • Respiration is a chemical reaction that allows cells to release energy from food
                  • The metabolic rate is the speed of which these chemical reactions take   place
                    • This varies due to factors such as age, gender and inheritence
                    • It is also affected by the proportion of Muscle:Fat and amount of exercise is done.
                      • This varies due to factors such as age, gender and inheritence
                      • Exercise builds muscle and muscle needs more energy than fatty tissue.
                    • The metabolic rate increases when we exercise and stays high for a while afterwards therefore people who exercise regularity are usually healthier
                      • It is also affected by the proportion of Muscle:Fat and amount of exercise is done.
                        • Exercise builds muscle and muscle needs more energy than fatty tissue.
                • The cholesterol level can affect health too.
                  • White waxy subtance made in the liver
                    • Needed to build healthy cell membranes and make sex hormones
                      • The cholesterol level can affect health too.
                        • White waxy subtance made in the liver
                          • Needed to build healthy cell membranes and make sex hormones
                            • In every cell in the body
                            • Too much cholesterol in the blood increases chances of heart attack and diseases arteries
                          • In every cell in the body
                          • Too much cholesterol in the blood increases chances of heart attack and diseases arteries
                        • The metabolic rate increases when we exercise and stays high for a while afterwards therefore people who exercise regularity are usually healthier
                    • Defending against disease
                      • Pathogens  are micro-organisms that cause diseases
                        • Bacteria are microscopic organisms
                          • They come in many diverse shapes and sizes but are still all very small
                          • Bacteria are living cells and, in favourable conditions, can multiply rapidly
                          • Once inside the body they release toxins that cause illnesses
                          • Food poisoning, Whooping cough, Sore throat, and Cholera
                        • Viruses are much much smaller than Bacteria, in fact they are the smallest micro-organism known
                          • Bacteria are microscopic organisms
                            • They come in many diverse shapes and sizes but are still all very small
                            • Bacteria are living cells and, in favourable conditions, can multiply rapidly
                            • Once inside the body they release toxins that cause illnesses
                            • Food poisoning, Whooping cough, Sore throat, and Cholera
                          • Consist of a fragment of genetic material inside a protective protein coat
                          • Can only reproduce inside host cells, this is damaging to the cell
                          • Once in a cell, the virus takes over and produces '1000000' copies of it's self
                            • Can only reproduce inside host cells, this is damaging to the cell
                          • Eventually the copies fill the whole cell which then bursts, the viruses are then passed out of the body
                            • Once in a cell, the virus takes over and produces '1000000' copies of it's self
                            • Common cold, Flu, Measles, rubella, AIDs and Chicken poxs
                        • White blood cells:
                          • ingest pathogens and destroy them
                          • Produce antibodies to destroy particular pathogens
                            • Pathogens contain certain chemicals that are foreign to the body. These chemicals are called antigens. Certain white blood cells, called lymphocytes, can produce specific antibodies to kill a particular pathogen.
                              • Antibodies can bind to pathogens and damage or destroy them or they can coat pathogens and clump them so they can be easily disgusted
                                • Each lymphocyte produces a specific type of antibody - a protein that has a chemical 'fit' to a certain antigen. When a lymphocyte with the appropriate antibody meets the antigen, the lymphocyte reproduces quickly and makes many copies of the antibody to kill the pathogen.
                                  • Produce antibodies to destroy particular pathogens
                                    • Pathogens contain certain chemicals that are foreign to the body. These chemicals are called antigens. Certain white blood cells, called lymphocytes, can produce specific antibodies to kill a particular pathogen.
                                      • Antibodies can bind to pathogens and damage or destroy them or they can coat pathogens and clump them so they can be easily disgusted
                                        • Each lymphocyte produces a specific type of antibody - a protein that has a chemical 'fit' to a certain antigen. When a lymphocyte with the appropriate antibody meets the antigen, the lymphocyte reproduces quickly and makes many copies of the antibody to kill the pathogen.
                            • Produce antitoxins which counteract the toxins released by bacterias
                              • antibodies and antitoxins are not living thing they are specialised proteins
                            • vaccinations
                              • Vaccination causes the body to produce enough white blood cells to protect itself against a pathogen.
                              • Antibiotics are effective against bacteria, but not against viruses.
                                • Viruses are much much smaller than Bacteria, in fact they are the smallest micro-organism known
                                  • Consist of a fragment of genetic material inside a protective protein coat
                                  • Eventually the copies fill the whole cell which then bursts, the viruses are then passed out of the body
                                    • Common cold, Flu, Measles, rubella, AIDs and Chicken poxs
                                • Some strains of bacteria are resistant to antibiotics. So people can be immunised against a pathogen through vaccination.
                                  • Natural selection
                                • Different vaccines are needed for different pathogens.
                                • Vaccination involves putting a small amount of an inactive form of a pathogen, or dead pathogen, into the body.
                                  • These act as antigens
                                    • When injected into the body, they stimulate white blood cells to produce antibodies against the pathogen
                                      • If the person does get infected by the pathogen later, their body can respond in the same way as if they had had the disease before
                                        • If a large proportion of the population is immune to a particular pathogen, the spread of that pathogen is greatly reduced.
                                • Vaccines can contain:
                                  • Live pathogens treated to make them harmless
                                  • Harmless fragments of the pathogen
                                  • Dead pathogens
                              • Hygiene
                                • In the 19th century, Ignaz Semmelweiss realised the importance of cleanliness in hospitals.
                                  • Semmelweiss insisted that doctors should wash their hands before examining patients, something that was not common at the time.
                                    • This policy greatly reduced the number of deaths from infectious diseases in his hospital.
                                      • Unfortunately, although his ideas were successful, they were ignored at the time because people did not know that diseases were caused by pathogens that could be killed.
                                        • In the 19th century, Ignaz Semmelweiss realised the importance of cleanliness in hospitals.
                                          • Semmelweiss insisted that doctors should wash their hands before examining patients, something that was not common at the time.
                                            • This policy greatly reduced the number of deaths from infectious diseases in his hospital.
                                              • Unfortunately, although his ideas were successful, they were ignored at the time because people did not know that diseases were caused by pathogens that could be killed.

                            Comments

                            Anisa Akhtar


                            helped alot thxs

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