B2 Organisation

  • Created by: Jeremy
  • Created on: 20-10-18 21:18
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  • B2 Organisation
    • B2.1 Principles of Organisation
      • Cells are the basic building blocks of all living things.
      • A tissue is a group of similar cells performing similar purposes.
      • Organs are organised into organ systems, which work together to form organisms.
    • B2.2 Animal tissues, organs, and organ systems
      • B2.2.1 The human digestive system
        • Several organs work together to digest and absorb food.
        • Enzymes work at higher temperatures becuase of more kinetic energy, but at too high temperatures. the emzyme becomes denatured.
        • Enzymes have a temperature at which it works best. This is called its optimum temperature.
        • Similar to the temperature, enzymes also have an optimum pH and can become denatured when the pH is too extreme.
        • Enzymes catalyse specific reactions because of the shape of their active site.
        • Enzymes
          • Carbohydrases are enzymes that break down carbohydrates into simple sugars e.g. amylase breaks down starch into glucose.
          • Lipases break down lipids into fatty acids and glycerol.
          • Proteases break down proteins into amino acids
        • Digestive enzymes break down food molecules to make them soluble to be absorbed into the bloodstream.
        • Bile neutralises stomach acids and emulsifies fats to speed up the rate of breakdown.
      • B2.2.2 The heart and blood vessels
        • The heart pumps blood to the organs in the body in a double circulatory system
          • RIGHT VENTRICLE: pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs
          • LEFT VENTRICLE: pumps oxygenated blood around the body
        • The body contains three types of blood vessels.
          • arteries
          • veins
          • capillaries
      • B2.2.3 Blood
        • Blood is a TISSUE.
        • Blood contains plasma, and the red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets are supsended in this liquid.
      • B2.2.4 Coronary heart disease
        • Layers of fatty material build up inside the coronary arteries, therefore narrowing the lumen.
        • Treatment
          • Stents are meshes implanted into the artery to keep the arteries open.
          • Statins are drugs that help to lower blood cholesterol levels
          • A heart disease patient can also have a valve or a heart transplant, and an artificial heart is sometimes used whilst waiting for a donor.
      • B2.2.5 Health issues
        • Health is a state of physical and mental well-being.
        • Diseases are major causes of ill health.
        • Disease interaction
          • Defects in the immune system can leave an individual more susceptible to infectious diseases.
          • Viruses living inside cells can trigger cancers.
          • Immune reactions caused by a pathogen can lead to allergies such as skin rashes and asthma.
          • Severe physical ill  health can have an adverse effect on mental health.
      • B2.2.6 The effect of lifestyle on some non-communicable diseases
        • Risk factors are linked to an increased rate of a disease.
        • Proven causal mechanisms for some risk factors
          • The effects of diet, smoking and exercise on cardiovascular disease
          • Obesity as a risk factor for Type 2 diabetes
          • The effect of alcohol on the liver and brain function
          • The effect of smoking on lung disease and lung cancer
          • The effects of smoking and alcohol on unborn babies
          • Carcinogens (including ionising radiation) as risk factors in cancer.
      • B2.2.7 Cancer
        • Cancer is the result of changes in cells that lead to uncontrolled growth and division
        • Benign tumours are growths of abnormal cells contained in one area, usually a membrane, and does not invade other parts of the body.
        • Malignant tumours are cancers and invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream.
    • B2.3 Plant tissues, organs and systems
      • B2.3.1 Plant tissues
        • epidermal tissues
        • palisade mesophyll
        • spongy mesophyll
        • xylem and phoem
        • meristem tissue (found at growing tips of shoots and roots)

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