Year 10 Biology Material

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  • Biology Paper 1 - Year 10 Material
    • Cell Biology
      • Cells
        • Cells make up all living things. They can be Prokaryotic or eukaryotic. The latter are complex and consist of animal and plant cells while the former are simple and smaller.
        • Nucleus - Contains genetic material
        • Cytoplasm - Chemical reactions happen. Contains enzymes that control these reactions.
        • Cell membrane - Controls what goes in and out of the cell
        • Mitochondria - Aerobic respiration, transfers energy.
        • Ribosomes - These are where proteins are made in the cell.
        • Plant Cells (Animal cells + a few more)
          • Cell Wall - Made of cellulose. Supports the cell and strengthens it.
      • Magnification = Image Size / Real Side
      • Chromosones are coiled DNA molecules.
        • Chromosones carry a large number of genes which influence the development of characteristics.
          • Two copies of each chromosone: one from the mother organism and the other from the father.
    • Infection and Response
      • Communicable Disease
        • Pathogens
          • Bacteria - Very small and spread toxins to damage cells and tissues
          • Viruses - Very small, use cells to replicate and burst them, causing illness.
          • Protists - Eukaryotes that are mostly single-celled. Parasites that live in an organism and cause damage, transferred by a vector such as an insect.
          • Fungi - Sometimes single-celled. Grow and penetrate human skin and surfaces of plans, causing disease. Hyphae (their body) produce spores, which can spread the fungi to other organisms and plants.
          • Spreading Pathogens
            • Water - Picked up by drinking or bathing in dirty water. Cholera is a bacterian infection spread by drinking water.
            • Air - Pathogens can be carried by air and breathed in. They can be spread in droplets produced when you cough or sneeze.
            • Direct Contact - Picked up by touching contaminated surfaces. Athelete's foot is a fungus which flakes off skin, and can be spread by touching floors and towels used by someone with the infection.
      • Fighting Disease
        • White Blood Cells
          • Consuming Pathogens - White blood cells engulf foreign cells and digest them.
          • Producing Antibodies - White blood cells produce antibodies that identify foreign antigens and lock onto invading cells so they can be destroyed. Antibodies will then be rapidly produced to destroy all similar cells in the body. If the invading cells come again, they will be almost immediately destroyed. This is what makes someone immune to a pathogen.
    • Bioenergetics
      • Photosynthesis is how plants change carbon dioxide into glucose and oxygen.
        • Photosynthesis limiting factors
          • The main three limiting factors of photosynthesis are flight intensity, carbon dioxide concentration and temperature.
          • Environmental conditioning changes which factor is the most important. For example, at night the limiting factor would be light while in the winter it would be temperature. When both of these are sufficient, CO2 amount would be the limiting factor.
          • The amount of chlorophyll a plant has can also be a limiting factor as plants depend on chlorophyll to carry out photosynthesis.
    • Ecology
      • Key Words
        • Habitat - The place where an organism lives.
        • Population - All the organisms of one species in one habitat.
        • Community - Populations of different sopecies in one habitat.
        • Abiotic Factors - Non-living environmental factors such as temperature.
        • Biotic factors - Living factors of the environment, such as food.
        • Ecosystem - Community of living organisms interacting with the non-liging parts of their environment.
      • Adaptations
        • Structural - Features of an organism's body structure - such as shape or colour.
          • Arctic animals such as the arctic fox have white fur to camouflage against the snow. This allows them to avoid predators and sneak up on prey.
        • Behavioural - Behaviour of organisms, such as migration patterns.
          • Swallos migrate to warmer climates in winter to avoid the cold conditions.
        • Functional - Processes that go on inside an organism's body  that can be related to processes like reproduction and metabolism.
          • Desert animals conserve water by producing very little sweat and small amounts of concentrated urine.


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