Biology keywords

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  • biology keywords
    • Stem cell
      • A cell of a human embryo or adult bone marrow that has the ability to differentiate.
    • In vitro fertilisation (IVF)
      • A technique in which egg cells are fertilised outside the female body.
    • Cystic fibrosis
      • A recessive hereditary disorder that mainly affects the lungs and digestive system.
    • Phenotype
      • The characteristics shown by an individual.
    • Genotype
      • The genetic make-up of an organism.
    • Allele
      • An alternative form of a particular gene.
    • Chromosome
      • A long molecule found in the nucleus of all cells containing DNA.
    • Gene
      • A small section of DNA of a chromosome that determines a particular characteristic.
    • Bacteria
      • Single-celled microorganisms with no nucleus.
    • Fungi
      • A group of organisms including mushrooms, toadstools and yeasts.
    • Virus
      • A tiny microorganism with a very simple structure that is reliant on using a cell's machinery to reproduce.
    • Antibody
      • Produced by white blood cells to inactivate disease-causing microorganisms.
    • Mutation
      • A spontaneous change in the genetic code of a cell.
    • Artery
      • A muscular blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart.
    • Vein
      • A blood vessel that carries blood towards the heart.
    • Capillary
      • A blood vessel that connects arteries to veins; where the exchange of materials takes place.
    • Hypothalamus
      • The part of the brain responsible for maintaining homeostasis.
    • Species
      • Similar organisms capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring.
    • Photosynthesis
      • The chemical process that takes place in green plants where water combines with carbon dioxide to produce glucose using light.
    • Autotroph
      • An organism that makes its own food.
    • Evolution
      • The gradual process of adaptation of a species over generations.
    • Mutation
      • A spontaneous change in the genetic code of a cell.
    • Selective breeding
      • The production of new varieties of animals and plants by artificial selection.
    • Biodiversity
      • The range of species in an environment.
    • Organelles
      • The different parts of a cell's structure.
    • Enzyme
      • A protein that speeds up that rate of reaction in living organisms (a catalyst in living things).
    • Polymer
      • A large molecule made up from many similar units (monomers).
    • Chlorophyll
      • The green pigment found in most plants; responsible for photosynthesis.
    • Active transport
      • The movement of a substance against a concentration gradient.
    • Mitosis
      • The cell division that forms two daughter cells, each with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell.
    • Meiosis
      • The cell division that forms daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell.
    • Gamete
      • A specialised sex cell formed by meiosis.
    • Zygote
      • A cell formed by the fusion of the nuclei of a male sex cell and a female sex cell (gametes).
    • Meristem
      • An area where unspecialised cells divide, producing plant growth.
    • Auxin
      • A plant hormone that affects the growth and development of a plant.
    • Stimulus
      • A change in an organism's environment.
    • Neuron
      • A specialised cell that transmits electrical messages or nerve impulses when stimulated.
    • Effector
      • The part of the body, e.g. a muscle or a gland, which produces a response to a stimulus.
    • Synapse
      • A small gap between adjacent neurons.
    • Conditioned reflex
      • A reflex action brought about by a learned stimulus.
    • Cerebral cortex
      • The part of the human brain most concerned with intelligence, memory, language and consciousness.
    • Bone
      • Rigid connective tissue that makes up the human skeleton.
    • Muscle
      • Tissue that can contract and relax to produce movement.
    • Ligament
      • The tissue that connects a bone to a joint.
    • Tendon
      • Tissue that connects a muscle to a bone.

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