Biology (diet& exercise and pathogens)

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  • Biology
    • Diet& exercise
      • Regular exercise and a balanced diet are needed to keep the body healthy.
      • Too little food leads to a person being underweight and prone to certain types of illness.
      • too much food and not enough exercise leads to a person being overweight and other types of ill health.
      • Nutrients
        • A mixture of different types of food in the correct amounts is needed to maintain health.
        • The main food groups are carbs, fat and protein.
        • Carbohydrates
          • potatoes, pasta, bread, bananas, sugar and rice
            • a source of energy for life processes
        • Fats
          • cheese, butter, margarine and oils.
            • a source of energy for life processes: fats are also needed to make cell membranes and to insulate our bodies.
        • Proteins
          • meat, fish, eggs and cheese
            • growth and repair - building cells
    • Pathogens
      • bacteria and viruses cause disease.
      • Bacteria release toxins, and viruses damage our cells.
      • White blood cells can ingest and destroy pathogens by producing antibodies that destroy the infectious microorganisms, and antitoxins to neutralise toxins created as a by-product.
      • Bacteria
        • Bacteria and viruses are the main types of pathogen. Bacteria are microscopic organisms.
        • They come in many shapes and sizes, but the largest are only 10 micrometres long.
        • Diseases caused by bacteria include:food poisoning cholera typhoid whooping cough.

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