Biology test term 1 year 10

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    • What are the diseases/ affects of over eating?
      • Obesity ( caused by too much fat and carbs).
      • Obesity can lead to type 2 diabetes.
      • Too much fat can lead to high cholesterol levels ( this can also be inherited), high blood pressure and heart disease.
    • What diseases can you get from not eating enough?
      • Anorexia/malnutrition
        • This could cause scurvy (lack of vit C) and rickets (lack of Calcium)
    • What is the metabolic rate?
      • The speed at which chemical reactions in the body use energy.
      • Factors that effect this is age, size, gender( men have a higher rate-more muscle proportion), climate ( use energy to keep yourself at perfect temp. 37 degrees), height (taller means higher), diet (quantities) and genes.
    • What are Microorganis-ms and how do they infect us.
      • A pathogen is a microbe that causes infectious disease.
      • Bacteria make us feel ill by producing toxins that damage/ kill our cells.
      • There are 3 main ways that disease can infect: air-borne (droplets from coughs or sneezes), water-borne(contaminated food and water) and direct contact(animals, touch, sex, contaminated blood contact and bodily fluids.)
    • How are we protected?
      • By white blood cells, skin, mucus, platelets, stomach acid, tonsils and eyelashes.
        • WBC produce antibodies in response to a pathogens antigens. They remain in our body to give us immunity to that particular pathogen. They can also digest pathogens.
    • What is vaccination?
      • When a dead or weakened strain of a pathogen is injected into the body.
        • This tricks WBC's into producing antibodies, which gives protection the next time that pathogen invades. Artificial immunity.
    • Why is there now antibiotic resistance?
      • Bacteria are resistant due to people not finishing their course of antibiotics. When we first start our course the antibiotics kill the more susceptible bacteria(original DNA). In a couple more days more bacteria are killed and you start to feel better. You don't finish the course and some of the more resistant bacteria mutate (evolve), then multiply every 20mins.
    • What are the aseptic technique's?
      • 1) Flame loop to kill bacteria. Heat of the blue Bunsen flame does this. Makes it uncontaminated. Stops cross contamination. Makes the loop sterile.
      • 2) Wait a few secs before putting the loop in the virus sample or it's heat could kill the virus that needs to be examined.
      • 3) Only open the lid a teensy amount so that the vacuum created (by the opening of the Bunsen hole) cannot pass pathogens on from air-borne diseases.
      • 4) Tape the lid to it's base so that no-one can knock it off to cause cross contamination between experiments. Also not tight enough that O2 can't get in but so that microbes can't get out and infect people.


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