Biology B2.1

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  • Cells, tissues and organs.
    • Structure that cells have in common:
      • Nucleus: Control's cell activities.
      • Cytoplasm: where chemical reactions take place.
      • Cell membrane: controls movement of materials in and out of the cell.
      • Mitochondria: Where energy is released during aerobic respiration.
      • Ribosomes: Where protein synthesis takes place.
    • Plant and Algal cells also have:
      • Cell wall made of cellulose: for support.
      • Chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll for photosynthesis.
      • Permanent vacuole: contains cell sap.
    • Yeast is a single-celled organism.
      • Yeast cells have a nucleus, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
    • Root hair cells:
      • Increase the surface area of the root so that it can absorb water and mineral ions efficiently.
    • Diffusion:
      • Dissolved substances and gases can move into and out of cells by diffusion.
      • The larger the concentration gradient, the faster the rate of diffusion.
    • Tissues and organs:
      • Animal tissues include:
        • Muscle tissue, glandular tissue and epithelial tissue.
      • Plant tissues include:
        • Epidermal tissue, mesophyll, xylem and phloem.
      • The stomach is an organ made of: muscular tissue, glandular tissue and epithelial tissue.
      • The leaf, stem and root are organs which contain epidermal tissue, mesophyll, xylem and phloem.


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