Biology 1a

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  • Biology 1a
    • Diet
      • Food groups
        • carbohydrates
          • Helps release energy
        • Fats
          • Keeps you warm and releases energy
        • Protein
          • Helps cell growth, repair, and replacement
        • Fibre
          • Makes food flow through your digestive system
        • Vitimins and minerals
          • Keeps skin, bones, and blood healthy
      • Obesity can lead to...
        • type 2 diabetes
        • some types of cancer
        • high blood pressure
        • arthritis
      • not eating enough can lead to...
        • Scurvy
        • fatigue
        • irregular periods
        • poor resistance to infections
    • Fighting disease
      • Producing antibodies which attack the foreign antigens and will continue to kill any that re-enter the body
      • Producing antitoxins which counteract invading bacteria
      • Vaccinations
        • Injection contains weak or dead microbes of the disease (eg measles, smallpox etc) this produces the antibodies
          • Producing antibodies which attack the foreign antigens and will continue to kill any that re-enter the body
        • pros
          • They control epidemics
          • Control infectious diseases
        • Cons
          • They don't always work
          • People can have bad reactions to the injection
    • Controlling Fertiliy
      • Preventing babies
        • Progesterone creates thick cervical mucus preventing sperm getting through
        • By taking oestrogen you can prevent the release of an egg
      • Making it easier to have babies
        • IVF means having the sperm fertillise the egg in a lab and then placing the embryos into the woman's uterus
    • Homeostasis
      • Kidneys maintain ion content
        • kidney's filter through the blood and remove excess ions
        • This is lost in the urine
      • Body temperature is controlled by the brain
        • Enzymes can only work at a particular temperature (roughly 37 degrees) so your body must maintian this temperature
        • Your brain receives information about the skin temperature and blood temperature
      • Control of blood sugar levels
        • Cells metabolising removes glucose from the gut
          • Doing more exercise removes more glucose
        • Insulin maintains the correct level of glucose needed in your blood
    • Reflexes
      • Synapses are the connection between two neurones
      • pain receptor
        • Impulse along sensory nueron
          • Impulsed passed through synapse into relay neurone
            • Impulse along motor neurone
              • Impulse reaches muscles which contracts
      • You DON'T think about reflex actions


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