Cell Organisation

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  • Created by: xxha_naxx
  • Created on: 30-05-18 00:12
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  • Biology - B3
    • Enzymes
      • pH
        • Can affect the shape of the active site of an enzyme and make it work very efficiently or stop it from working
      • Temperature
        • High temps denature the enzyme, changing the shape of the active site
          • At low temps, enzyme reactions are slow and they speed up as the temp rises until at optimum temp.
      • Amylase
        • Carbohydrases (such as amylase) Catalyses the breakdown of Carbohydrates into simple sugars
          • Takes place in mouth and small intestine
      • Lipase
        • Catalyses the breakdown of Lipids into fatty acids and glycerol
          • Take place in the small intestine
      • Protease
        • Catalyses the breakdown of Proteins into amino acids
          • Takes place in the stomach and small intestine
          • Proteins are polymers made by joining together small molecules of amino acids
    • Organisation
      • Organs
        • A collection of Tissues . For e.g the Stomach is an Organ and it contains Muscular, Glandular and Epithelial Tissue
          • The Pancreas is an Organ that makes Hormones and makes Enzymes
      • Organ system
        • A number of Organs working together.
      • Tissues
        • A group of cells with similar cell structure and function working together
          • Muscular tissue - to churn the food in the stomach
            • Glandular tissue - to produce digestive juices including acid and enzymes
              • Epithelial tissue - to cover the inner and outer surfaces of the stomach
      • Organisms
        • Organ systems work together to form Organisms.
    • Digestive System
      • How it works?
        • Food is digested in the mouth, stomach and small intestine.
          • Digested food is abosored into the bloodstream by villi in the small intestine
            • excess water is absorbed back into the body by osmosis in the large intestine
              • Any undigested food passes out of the anus as faeces when we go to the toilet
      • The stomach
        • Changing pH in the stomach
          • Hydrochloric acid gives the stomach a low pH suitable for the protease secreted (released) there to work efficiently
        • How does acid in the stomach increase the efficiency of Pepsin?
          • The stomach produces HCI. This helps to begin digestion, and kills bacteria. The enzymes int he stomach work best in acidic conditions (At a low pH)
      • The small Intestine
        • Bile is squirted onto it through the bile duct. the bile neutralises the acid and makes it alkaine
        • Digested food molecules are absorbed into the small intestine
          • The inside of the intestine is lined with tiny villi. These stick out and give a large surface area
            • The villi contains blood capillaries to carry away the absorbed food molecules
              • The villi has a rich blood supply. The blood supply has a lower concentration of food molecules and so diffusion happens quickly
        • Adaptation
          • Being very long, having villi to increase the surface area, digestive enzymes and bile that help breakdown the food
      • Bile
        • Bile emulsifies the fats into tiny droplets and Neutralises the acid
        • Alkaline Bile neutralises the acid and gives a high pH for the enzymes form the pancreas and small intestine to work well
        • Produced by the liver, stored in the gall bladder. Released through the bile duct
        • How does Bile increase the efficiency of fat digestion?
          • The liver produces Bile which emulsifies fats. This will increase the rate at which the fat is digested by Lipase.
    • Practicals
      • Testing for Starch
        • Iodine test  - Yellow/red Iodine solution turns blue/black if Starch is present
      • Testing for Protein
        • Biuret test - Blue Biuret reagent turn purple if Protein is present
      • Testing for Sugars
        • Benedicts test - blue benedicts solution turns brick red if a sugar is present
      • Testing for Lipids
        • Ethanol test - gives a cloudy white layer is Lipid is present.
      • pH on the rate of reaction of Amylase on Starch
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