Biology

  • Created by: AOconnor
  • Created on: 12-05-18 16:31
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  • Biology
    • Response to exercise
      • Heart rate, breathing rate and breath volume increase to supply muscles with oxygenated blood
      • If insufficient blood is supplied, anaerobic respiration takes place
        • Incomplete oxidation of glucose causes lactic acid to build up and creates oxygen debt
          • Blood transports lactic aid to liver to be converted into glucose
          • Oxygen debt is amount of extra oxygen needed after exercises too react with lactic acid and remove it from cells
    • Metabolism
      • Sum of all chemical reactions in cell/body
    • Cell cycle/mitosis
      • Genetic material doubled and number of sub-cellular structures increases
        • Chromosomes line up in centres of cell
          • Chromosomes pulled to opposite poles via spindle fibres
            • Nucleus divides along with cytoplasm and cell membrane
              • Forms two identical daughter cells
      • Importance
        • growth and development of organism
        • Repair damaged tissues
    • Stem cells
      • Undifferentiated cell capable of giving rise to many more cells
        • Stem cells from adult bone marrow can form many types of cells
        • Stem cells from human embryos can differentiate to form most types of human cell
          • therapeutic cloning = embryo is produced with same genes as patient
        • Meristem tissue in plants can differentiate into any plant cell
          • Rare species can be cloned to prevent extinction
          • Crop plants can be cloned to produce large numbers of identical ones for farmers
      • Treatment can help paralysis and diabetes
    • Culturing microorganisms
      • Bacteria multiply by binary fission if they have enough nutrients and a suitable temp.
        • Bacteria can be grown in nutrient broth solution or as colonies on agar gel plate
        • Uncontaminated cultures are used to investigate action of disinfectants and antibiotics
      • Practical
        • Petri dish and culture media sterilised
          • sterilise inoculating loop via flame
            • Used to transfer microorganism to media
        • Secure dish with tape and store upside down
        • Incubate at 25*C

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