biological therapies

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  • biological therapies for schizophrenia
    • antipsychotic medication
      • they block the action of neurotransmitters that bring about the symptoms of schizophrenia & consequently help the person function more effectively.
      • A01-conventional antipsychotics are used to combat positive symptoms. they reduce the effects of dopamine.
      • A01- atypical antipsychotics act on the dopamine pathway but only temporarily occupy the D2 dopamine receptors and then rapidly disassociate to allow normal dopamine transmission.
    • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
      • an electrode is placed on the non dominant side of the brain, given nerve blocking agent, small amount of current passed through the brain, creating seizure, 3-15 treatments needed.
      • A02- effectiveness- ECT produced results that were no different or worse than antipsychotic medication. appropriatness- risks ( memory problems, brain damage and death)
      • ethical issues- a tardive dyskinesia sufferer large out of court settlement on the basis of human rights which states 'no one shall be subjected to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
    • A02- effectiveness (conventional) - relapse rates- placebos. other factors are important- hostility in their home. appropriatness- side effects- tardive dyskinesia. decreased motivation to help yourself.
    • A02- effectiveness (atypical) - 'new' atypical were no more effective. not a lot of support for negative effects being combatted. appropriateness- lower chance of tardive dsykinsesia and fewer side effects.


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