biological membranes: lipids

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  • Biological molecules: lipids
    • functions
      • energy
      • energy storage
      • biological membranes
      • insulation
      • protection
    • essential fatty acids must be taken in complete as part of the diet
    • fatty acids
      • acid group
      • hydrocarbon chain
    • saturated
      • single bond
    • unsaturated
      • double bond
    • triglycerides
      • glycerol molecule
      • 3 fatty acids
      • a condensation reaction forms an ester bond
        • monoglyceride formed
      • many monoglycerides = troglyceride
      • insoluble
        • hydrophobic
    • phospholipids
      • glycerol molecule
      • 2 fatty acids
      • phosphate group
      • hydrophilic head
      • hydrophobic tail
    • respiration of lipids requires the hydrolysis of the ester bonds
    • the respiration of 1g of lipids gives out twice as much energy as the respiration of carbohydtrates
    • lipids don't reduce the water potential of a cell
    • cholesterol
      • 4 carbon based rings
      • helps regulate the fluidity of membranes
    • steroid hormone
      • testosterone
      • oestrogen
      • vitamin D
    • excess cholesterol
      • gallstones
      • familial   hypercholesterolaemia
      • atherosclerosis

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