biological molecules: carbohydrates

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  • Biological molecules
    • Condensation reaction
      • water is released, covalent bond formed
    • Hydrolysis reaction
      • Water used, covalent bond broken
    • biological polymers
      • carbohydrates
        • monosaccharides
        • polysaccharides
      • proteins
        • amino acids
        • polypeptides and proteins
      • nucleic acids
        • nucleotides
        • DNA & RNA
    • function of carbohydrates
      • storage
      • energy source
      • structure
    • a-glucose + a-glucose = maltose
      • maltose then forms amylose
        • amylose coils into a spring
    • The glycosidic bond between all glucose subunits = 1,4,-glycosidic bond
    • Starch
      • long straight-chained amylose molecules
      • branched amylopectin
      • can be broken down to glucose for respiration
      • energy-storage in plants
    • Glycogen
      • energy-storage in animnals
      • a-glucose subunits
      • can be broken down for respiration
      • shorter 1,4- glycosidic bonds
      • more compact than starch
    • starch and glycogen
      • do not dissolve or affect the water potential of the cell
      • can easily be broken off to provide glucose for respiration
    • B- glucose
      • flipped
      • long, straight chains
      • cellulose chains
      • Cellulose
        • hydrogen bonds form between the chains because of the abundance of OH groups
        • form microfibrils
          • form macrofibrils
    • Plant Cell Wall
      • strength
      • allows water to pass in and out of the cell easily
      • prevents the cell bursting
      • Untitled

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