Biological Molecules

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  • Created by: leenaq
  • Created on: 19-02-13 18:42
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  • Biological Molecules
    • Carbohydrates
      • Types
        • Monosaccharides
          • one  glucose unit
            • glycosidic bonds   can be broken down by a hydrolysis reaction
        • Disaccharides
          • they are made by a condensation reaction
            • when two monosaccharides bond together and water is produced
              • glycosidic bonds form between the glucose molecules
        • Polysccharides
          • consists of monomer units linked by glycosidic bonds
      • all carbohydrates are fromed from carbon, hydrogen and  oxygen
      • storage
        • Polysccharides
          • consists of monomer units linked by glycosidic bonds
        • starch
          • main energy storage material in plants
          • starch is a mixture of two polysaccharides of alpa-glucose amylose and amylopectin
          • it is  insoluble and compact
          • can be broken down rapidly to release glucose when needed
        • glycogen
          • main energy storage material in animals
          • glycogen is excess glucose that is stored.
          • glycogen is released quickly due to structure having a lot of side branches
          • very compact, good storage space
          • large molecule can store loads of energy
      • a-glucose and b-glucose
    • Lipids
      • triglycerides
        • type of lipid formed when fatty acids react with glycerol
          • it  is a condensation reaction
          • ester bonds are used
        • to turn triglycerides back to fatty acids and glycerol, enzymes are needed with water molecules
      • saturated fats
        • are mainly found in animal fats
        • they have no double bonds in their hydrocarbon tails
      • unsaturated fats
        • mainly found in plants
        • they have double bonds on their hydrocarbon tail
    • Proteins
      • made up by lots of monomers linked together called amino acids
        • amino acids are linked up by peptide bonds to make proteins by condensation reactions
      • all amino acids have the same structure the difference is the variable group
      • structures
        • primary structure
          • a sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain held together by peptide bonds
        • secondary structure
          • hydrogen bonds form between the amino acid in the chain
            • making it
              • fold into a beta pleated sheet
              • coil into an alpha helix
        • tertiary structure
          • the chain is coiled and folded further more bonds form between different parts of the polypeptide chain.
        • quaternary structure
          • proteins made up of several diffectn
    • Enzymes
      • they catalyse metabollic reactions
      • they are globular proteins
      • lock and key
        • this is where the substrate fits into the enzyme
        • this model was out dated
      • induced fit
        • the substrate dosent have to be the right shape to fit the active site
          • the active sites' shape can changeas well
      • activation energy
        • this lowers when the active site forms an enzyme-substrate complex
          • this lowers the activation energy because the enzymeholds them both together, reducing any repulsion between molecules
      • 3D structure
        • they are very specific
        • active site shape determinedfrom 3D structure
        • every enzyme has a different shape
      • rate  affecters
        • Inhibitors
          • competitiveinibitiors
            • binds to active site of enzyme
              • decreases rate of reaction
          • non-competitive
            • binds to a part of enzyme and changes the active site
              • stops the rate of reaction
        • concentration
          • the more enzymes in a solution the more likely the substrate molecule is to collide
            • increasing the rate of reaction
        • temperature
          • optimum temp is 37
          • increasing temp
            • the active  site be comes denatured
          • decreasing temp
            • enzymes have little energy and move slowly
        • pH
          • low pH
            • active site becomes denatured
          • high pH
            • active site becomes denatured
    • water
      • it is a solvent
        • water  transports substances
      • it is a dipolar molecule
        • it has a negative charge and a positive charge on either side
      • hydrogen bonding
        • the attraction of the oxygen of one water molecule and the hydrogen of another
      • cohesion
        • is the attraction between molecules of the same type and so water molecules
      • Uses
        • as a solvent
        • photosynthesis
        • temperature regulation
        • transportation

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