Biological molecules

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  • Biological molecules
    • carbohydrates
      • one test used for carbohydrates is the benedict's test for reducing sugars
      • bonds in carbohydrates
        • glycosidic bonds
          • split by hydrolysis reactions
        • hydrogen
          • weak bonds easily broken used in plants to join cellulose chains together
    • proteins
      • the test for proteins is the biuret test
      • enzymes
        • enzymes can break to molecules apart or join them together
      • bonds
        • primary structure: amino acids joined together in long chains
        • secondary structure: these chains then curl up to form alpha helix or beta pleated sheets all held together by hydrogen bonds
        • teitry structure is created by 3 bond types ionic, disulphide bridges which are covalent bonds between two sulphur atoms and hydrogen bonds
      • collagen
      • prosthetic groups a these are not naturally part of the enzyme and are added on for example the heam Fe2+ group in red blood cells
    • nucleotides
      • bonds
        • the organic base dioxyribose sugar and the phosphate all join together by condensation reactions
        • the chains of nucleotides are also created by a condensation reaction between a phosphate group of one nucleotide and the dioxyribose sugar of another nucleotide
        • the a=t has a double bond the G=C has a triple bond
      • RNA uses a ribose sugar rather than a dioxyribose sugar
      • purines
        • adenine
      • pyridmines
        • cytosine
    • lipids
      • tests for
        • the emulsion test
      • bonds
        • phospholipids the phosphate group is covalently bonded to the third oh group
    • water
      • water uses hydrogen bonds as well as two covalent bonds as oxygen is more electronegative it has a slight delta negative charge while the hydrogen's have a slight positive charge


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