biological molecules

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  • biological molecules
    • water
      • solvent
      • transports nutrients
      • molecule made of one oxygen atom and 2 hydrogen atoms
      • slightly positive charge
      • dipolar molecule
      • hydrogen bonding
      • very cohesive
    • carbohydrates
      • monosaccharides
        • joined by gl;ycosidic bonds
        • condensation reactions
        • alpha glucose
        • beta glucose
      • disaccharides
        • two monosaccharides joined together
        • lactose and sucrose
    • lipids
      • triglycerides
        • glycerol  and hydrocarbontail of fatty acids.
        • tails are hydrophobic
        • lipids insoluble in water
        • formed by condensation reactions
        • ester bonds
      • saturated or unsaturated
        • saturated lipids are mainly found in animal fats
        • unsaturated lipids are mostly found in plants
        • unsaturated lipids melt in lower temperatures than saturated ones.
        • hydrocarbons- unsaturated lipids - double bonds. saturated bnds- no double bonds.
    • proteins
      • long chains of amino acids
      • dipeptide - two amino acids joined together
      • proteins made up of polypeptides
      • amino acids
        • carboxyl group
        • amino group NH2
        • difference between amino acids is the variety between R group
      • structure
        • primary - sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain
        • secondary - hydrogen bonds form between amino acids.alpha helix or beta pleated sheet.
        • tertiary  - 3d structure . coiled folded structure.
        • quaternary - more than one polypeptide chain. 3d structure
      • globular
        • round, compact proteins made up multiple polypeptide chains.
        • coiled
        • soluble
        • e.g. haemoglobin
      • fibrous
        • insoluble
        • polypeptide chains
        • collagen
    • enzymes
      • biological catalyst
        • metabolic reactions
        • intracelluar or extracellular
      • they lower the activation energy of a reaction.
      • globular proteins
      • active site with a specific shape
      • concentration affects the rate of reaction.
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