biological molecules

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  • biological molecules
    • water
      • solvent
      • transports nutrients
      • molecule made of one oxygen atom and 2 hydrogen atoms
      • slightly positive charge
      • dipolar molecule
      • hydrogen bonding
      • very cohesive
    • carbohydrates
      • monosaccharides
        • joined by gl;ycosidic bonds
        • condensation reactions
        • alpha glucose
        • beta glucose
      • disaccharides
        • two monosaccharides joined together
        • lactose and sucrose
    • lipids
      • triglycerides
        • glycerol  and hydrocarbontail of fatty acids.
        • tails are hydrophobic
        • lipids insoluble in water
        • formed by condensation reactions
        • ester bonds
      • saturated or unsaturated
        • saturated lipids are mainly found in animal fats
        • unsaturated lipids are mostly found in plants
        • unsaturated lipids melt in lower temperatures than saturated ones.
        • hydrocarbons- unsaturated lipids - double bonds. saturated bnds- no double bonds.
    • proteins
      • long chains of amino acids
      • dipeptide - two amino acids joined together
      • proteins made up of polypeptides
      • amino acids
        • carboxyl group
        • amino group NH2
        • difference between amino acids is the variety between R group
      • structure
        • primary - sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain
        • secondary - hydrogen bonds form between amino acids.alpha helix or beta pleated sheet.
        • tertiary  - 3d structure . coiled folded structure.
        • quaternary - more than one polypeptide chain. 3d structure
      • globular
        • round, compact proteins made up multiple polypeptide chains.
        • coiled
        • soluble
        • e.g. haemoglobin
      • fibrous
        • insoluble
        • polypeptide chains
        • collagen
    • enzymes
      • biological catalyst
        • metabolic reactions
        • intracelluar or extracellular
      • they lower the activation energy of a reaction.
      • globular proteins
      • active site with a specific shape
      • concentration affects the rate of reaction.
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This is really useful...has everything tah



this awesome



very helpful source of information really helped me understand this topic  




Lexie Rad


Brilliant resource! Nice to have all the key points in one place. Ta muchly x

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